"As for the Olympic games, the most learned antiquaries of Elis say that Kronos (Cronus) was the first king of heaven, and that in his honor a temple was built in Olympia by the men of that age, who were named the Golden Race. ", Callimachus, Hymn 1 to Zeus 50 ff (trans. ", Aratus, Phaenomena 27 ff (trans. : Lycophron, Alexandra 760 ff (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
8. After these he sired the Kyklopes (Cyclopes), by name Arges, Steropes, and Brontes, each of whom had one eye in his forehead. No battlements their cities yet embraced, no trumpets straight, no horns of sinuous brass, no sword, no helmet then--no need of arms; the world untroubled lived in leisured ease. 6 : Pausanias, Description of Greece 8. : Nonnus, Dionysiaca 6. ", Ovid, Metamorphoses 9. In like manner the god, in his love for humanity, set over us at that time the nobler race of Daimones who, with much comfort to themselves and much to us, took charge of us and furnished peace and modesty and orderliness and justice without stint, and thus made the tribes of men free from feud and happy. 10 (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. . But Kronos and Philyra were surprised in the very act by the goddess Rhea. In them he trusts and rules over mortals and immortals. : But the unjust endure pain that no eye can bear to see. 203 ff (trans. . : ", Pausanias, Description of Greece 6. . : Taylor) (Greek hymns C3rd B.C.
Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 5.
"[Ouranos (Uranus), Sky] fathered other sons on Ge (Earth), namely the Titanes (Titans) : Okeanos (Oceanus), Koios (Coeus), Hyperion, Kreios (Crius), Iapetos (Iapetus), and Kronos (Cronus) the youngest; also daughters called Titanides : Tethys, Rhea, Themis, Mnemosyne, Phoibe (Phoebe), Dione, Theia. "Chorus : Zeus gives greater honor to a father's death, according to what you say; yet he himself bound his aged father, Kronos (Cronus). These Nymphai (Nymphs) are said to have bathed Zeus here, after he was stolen by the Kouretes (Curetes) owing to the danger that threatened from his father [Kronos (Cronus)], and it is said that it [the fountain Klepsydra (Clepsydra) on Mt Ithome in Messenia] has its name from the Kouretes' theft. And she spoke, cheering them, while she was vexed in her dear heart : My children, gotten of a sinful father, if you will obey me, we should punish the vile outrage of your father; for he first thought of doing shameful things. 2 : Pausanias, Description of Greece 9. 2. The record of victors include Apollon, who outran Hermes and beat Ares at boxing. ", Orphic Hymn 13 to Cronus (trans.
Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.) [3.1] THE KORYBANTES (Strabo 10.3.19) in the time of Kronos, and even before. "[The history of the world inscribed on tablets by the primordial god Phanes :] The first tablet, old as the infinite past, containing all things in one: upon it was all that Ophion lord paramount had done, all that ancient Kronos (Cronus) accomplished: when he cut off his father's [Ouranos' (Uranus')] male plowshare, and sowed the teeming deep with seed on the unsown back of the daughterbegetting sea (Thalassa); how he opened a gaping throat to receive a stony son, when he made a meal of the counterfeit body of a pretended Zeus; how the stone played midwife to the brood of imprisoned children, and shot out the burden of the parturient gullet [the stone was last swallowed and the first disgorged by Kronos]. "She [Hestia] was the first-born child of wily Kronos and youngest too." "The Olympic games . 1. . 9 (trans. And Aratos (Aratus) [poet C3rd B.C.] For a long time steep Ida booms its clanging noise so the wordless infant may wail safely.
223 ff : Lattimore) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) 1 (trans. "Ouranos (Uranus, Sky) was the first to rule over the entire world. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. 4 : Strabo, Geography 3. . to C1st A.D.) : 43 ff (trans. Even if they were true I should not think that they ought to be thus lightly told to thoughtless young persons.", Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. "[Plato synchronises the stories of Kronos (Cronus) as king of the Golden Age and Kronos, king of Elysium :] Rieu) (Greek epic C3rd B.C.) Celoria) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) : Oppian, Cynegetica 3. .
. : Pseudo-Hyginus, Preface (trans. ", Pausanias, Description of Greece 5. : Aeschylus, Eumenides 640 ff (trans. 65. "After Juno [Hera] saw that Epaphus [or perhaps Dionysos], born of a concubine, ruled such a great kingdom, she saw to it that he should be killed while hunting, and encouraged the Titanes (Titans) to drive Jove [Zeus] from the kingdom and restore it to Saturnus [Kronos (Cronus)]. 33. Rackham) (Roman rhetorician C1st B.C.) Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) ", Plato, Republic 377e (trans. Him did vast Gaia (Earth) receive from Rhea in wide Krete to nourish and to bring up. But he [Zeus] shall bring thee to the plain of his nativity [Thebes], that land celebrated above others by the Greeks, where his mother [Rhea], skilled in wrestling, having cast into Tartaros the former queen [Eurynome, wife of Ophion], delivered her of him [Zeus] in travail of secret birth, escaping the child-devouring unholy feast of her spouse [Kronos (Cronus)]; and he fattened not his belly with food, but swallowed instead the stone, wrapped in limb-fitting swaddling clothes: savage Kentauros (Centaur) [Kronos as father of the kentauros Kheiron (Chiron)], tomb of his own offspring. : . ", Nonnus, Dionysiaca 12. 1 (trans. Lamb) : Campbell, Vol. : "[In the Golden Age when Kronos (Cronus)ruled :] It was the time when birds and creatures of the sea and four-footed animals could talk in the same way as the Promethean clay ((lacuna)) . But others recount a myth, which runs as follows: There was delivered to Kronos an oracle regarding the birth of Zeus which stated that the son who would be born to him would wrest the kingship from him by force. ", Aeschylus, Agamemnon 168 ff (trans. "Ascending [through the oracular shrine of Delphoi (Delphi), Phokis] you come to a stone of no large size [the omphalos]. : Simonides, Fragment 511 (trans. "He [Ouranos (Uranus)] who once was mighty, swelling with insolence for every fight, he shall not even be named as having ever existed; and he [Kronos (Cronus)] who arose later, he has met his overthrower [Zeus] and is past and gone. ", Homer, Iliad 14. . Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) : Ovid, Fasti 3. ", Simonides, Fragment 511 (trans. In return the Kyklopes (Cyclopes) gave Zeus thunder, lightning, and a thunderbolt, as well as a helmet for Plouton and a trident for Poseidon. Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 150 (trans. "The Kouretes (Curetes) were the nurses of the infant Zeus, the mighty son of Kronos (Cronus), what time Rhea concealed his birth and carried away the newly-born child from Kronos, his sire implacable, and placed him in the vales of Krete. "Prometheus : Yes, truly, the day will come when Zeus, although stubborn of soul, shall be humbled, seeing that he plans a marriage [i.e. 6 : "[Has] Kronos (Cronus) . "It is a hopeless task to enumerate all the peoples who claim that Zeus was born and brought up among them. Now in the time of Kronos there was a law concerning mankind, and it holds to this very day amongst the gods, that every man who has passed a just and holy life departs after his decease to the Isles of the Blest (Nesoi Makaron), and dwells in all happiness apart from ill; but whoever has lived unjustly and impiously goes to the dungeon of requital and penance which, you know, they call Tartaros (Tartarus). 137, 452, &c.; Apollod. . He swallowed his first-born daughter Hestia, then Demeter and Hera, and after them Plouton (Pluton) [Haides] and Poseidon. : In Greek they are called Curetes; others call them Corybantes; these in Italy, however are called Lares. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. : "When Rhea, fearing Kronos (Cronus), hid Zeus in the Kretan (Cretan) cavern, a goat [Amaltheia] offered her udder and gave him nourishment. "When Zeus was grown, he engaged Okeanos' (Oceanus') daughter Metis (Counsel) as a colleague. Because both Ge (Earth) and Ouranos (Heaven) had given him prophetic warning that his rule would be overthrown by a son of his own, he took to swallowing his children at birth. After ten years of fighting Ge (Earth) prophesied a victory for Zeus if he were to secure the prisoners down in Tartaros as his allies. . But those who had good courage, three times on either side of death, to keep their hearts untarnished of all wrong, these travel along the road of Zeus to Kronos' (Cronus') tower. Vesta [Hestia] was the third. ", Pausanias, Description of Greece 8. : Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) : Greek Lyric III) (C7th to 6th B.C.) 7 : Zeus could undo fetters, there is a remedy for that, and many means of release. 7 ff (trans. 3 (trans. He thereupon slew their jail-keeper Kampe (Campe), and freed them from their bonds. Trypanis) (Greek poet C3rd B.C.) . . ", Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. . And he set free from their deadly bonds the brothers of his father, sons of Ouranos [the Hekatonkheires (Hecatoncheires) and Kyklopes (Cyclopes)] whom his father in his foolishness had bound. 4) (trans. 126 ff (trans. . ", Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 150 (trans. Lamb) (Greek philosopher C4th B.C.) : Sokrates (Socrates) : By Homer's account, Zeus, Poseidon, and Plouton (Pluton) [Haides] divided the sovereignty amongst them when they took it over from their father [Kronos (Cronus)]. "To Kronos (Cronus) and Rhea, we are told, were born Hestia, Demeter, and Hera, and Zeus, Poseidon, and Haides. 553 ff : ", Nonnus, Dionysiaca 2. ", Seneca, Hercules Furens 965 ff (trans. the fiery shining victory of Zeus at war and the hailstorm snowstorm conflict of Kronos (Cronus). 70. 7 : Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 5. And even today this tale has a truth to tell, namely, that wherever a State has a mortal, and no god, for ruler, there the people have no rest from ills and toils; and it deems that we ought by every means to imitate the life of the age of Kronos, as tradition paints it." That is why Zeus has done me great honour, because after being attacked he paid him back, not unjustly. . : The first men who gave names [to the gods] were no ordinary persons, but high thinkers and great talkers . 4 : "Gods have loved their sisters; yes, indeed! The name of Kronos, however, has already been discussed . "[Zeus] in his first youth battered the earthborn Titanes (Titans) for Olympos, when he was only a boy . "From Saturnus [Kronos (Cronus)] and Philyra [were born] : Chiron, Dolops. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) : all the fruits of the earth sprang up of their own accord for men . . . "Broadbeard Kronos (Cronus) sank under the thunderbolt, and Zeus sealed him deep in the dark Tartarean pit, armed in vain with the watery weapons of the storm." Fowler) : Callimachus, Iambi Fragment 1 (from Oxyrhynchus Papyri 7) (trans. 39. Juno, however, took Jove to the island of Crete, and Amalthea, the child's nurse, hung him in a cradle from a tree, so that he could be found neither in heaven nor on earth nor in the sea. Jones) (Greek geographer C1st B.C. : . "The three gods [Zeus, Poseidon and Haides] overpowered the Titanes (Titans), confined them in Tartaros (Tartarus), and put the Hekatonkheires (Hecatoncheires) in charge of guarding them. Sokrates (Socrates) : Let us inquire what thought men had in giving them [the gods] their names . to C1st A.D.) : He ruled the cosmos during the Golden Age after castrating and deposing his father Ouranos (Uranus, Sky). Kheiron (Chiron), a double-formed kentauros (centaur), was born to Kronos (Cronus) and Philyra. Cicero, De Natura Deorum 2. 6 (trans. Greek Lyric IV) (C6th to 5th B.C.) Trypanis) (Greek poet C3rd B.C.) Kronos (Cronus) still dripping held the emasculating sickleblade, after he had cut off the manly crop of his father's [Ouranos'] plow and robbed him of the Mother's [Gaia's] bed to which he was hastening, and warred against your sire at the head of the Titanes. : 536 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. But the good, through the nights alike, and through the days unending, beneath the sun's bright ray, tax no the soil with the strength of their hands, nor the broad sea for a poor living, but enjoy a life that knows no toil; with men honoured of heaven, who kept their sworn word gladly, spending an age free from all tears. Hesiod, Theogony 126 ff (trans. 9 (trans. Fowler) (Greek philosopher C4th B.C.) See the Elsyium section below. 1 : "She [Gaia, Earth] lay with Ouranos (Uranus, Sky)and bare deep-swirling Okeanos (Oceanus), Koios (Coeus) and Krios (Crius) and Hyperion and Iapetos (Iapetus), Theia and Rheia, Themis and Mnemosyne and gold-crowned Phoibe (Phoebe) and lovely Tethys. And they may not go out; for Poseidon fixed gates of bronze upon it, and a wall runs all round it on every side.There Gyes and Kottos (Cottus) and great-souled Obriareus live, trusty warders of Zeus who holds the aegis. And because of the exceptional obedience to laws no injustice was committed by any one at nay time and all the subjects of the rule of Kronos lived a life of blessedness, in the unhindered enjoyment of every pleasure. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) Aphroi (trans. And they lived like gods without sorrow of heart, remote and free from toil and grief: miserable age rested not on them; but with legs and arms never failing they made merry with feasting beyond the reach of all evils.
As soon as he had seated himself upon his father's throne, he immediately assigned to the deities their several privileges and apportioned to them their proper powers. ", Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. ", Corinna, Fragment 654 (trans. 2. "[Hera addresses Apate, the spirit of deceit :] Lend me also that girdle or many colours, which Rheia once bound about her flanks when she deceived her husband! ", Pausanias, Description of Greece 9. 7. : They dwelt in ease and peace upon their lands with many good things, rich in flocks and loved by the blessed gods. And though I argued all this to them, they did not pay any attention to my words. And again, three other sons [the Hekatonkheires (Hecatoncheires)] were born of Gaia and Ouranos, great and doughty beyond telling, Kottos (Cottus) and Briareos (Briareus) and Gyes. 41 ff (trans. "Now some say that Zeus wrestled here [at Olympia, Elis] with Kronos (Cronus) himself for the throne, while others say that he held the games in honour of his victory over Kronos. to 2nd A.D.) : Pausanias, Description of Greece 1. 4 - 5 (trans. . 4) (trans. Sardanios gelos (trans. : 178 ff (trans. Conway) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) ], Callimachus, Aetia Fragment 43 (trans.
3, &c.) At the instigation of his mother, Cronus unmanned his father for having thrown the Cyclopes, who were likewise his children by Ge, into Tartarus. Their help allowed Rheia to wrap up that stone of deceit, and gave it to Kronos for a meal in place of Kronides (Cronides) [Zeus].
Campbell, Vol. "Now first appeared the golden crop of men [the Golden Race of Mankind] brought forth in the image of the gods, with the roots of their stock in the earth. By him she bore Chiron the Centaur, who is said to have been the first to invent the art of healing. 41 ff (trans. 187 ff (trans. 66. Celoria) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) : Younger Sokrates (Socrates) : That is one of the old tales, too . ", Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1.
This subject was handled by Zeno and was later explained more fully by Cleanthes and Chrysippus. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) 498 ff : Callimachus, Aetia Fragment 43 (trans.
Miller) (Roman tragedy C1st A.D.) : 230 ff (trans. When he had asked Opis for what she had borne, in order to devour it, Opis showed him a stone wrapped up like a baby; Saturnus devoured it. 498 ff (trans. 65 ff : After them was born Kronos (Cronus), the wily, youngest and most terrible of her children, and he hated his lusty sire. :
. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) : ", Nonnus, Dionysiaca 6. ], Plato, Hipparchus 229b (trans. the father of men and gods spoke amongst them : Hear me, bright children of Gaia and Ouranos, that I may say what my heart within me bids. . : 50 ff : From their shoulders sprang a hundred arms, not to be approached, and each had fifty heads upon his shoulders on their strong limbs, and irresistible was the stubborn strength that was in their great forms. put his father [Kronos (Cronus)] in bonds because he wickedly devoured his children. 19 : Nonnus, Dionysiaca 24. 1 (trans. . : Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 5. ", Callimachus, Iambi Fragment 192 (from Oxyrhynchus Papyri 7) : Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) : Greek Lyric V) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) Fairclough) (Roman bucolic C1st B.C.) Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) : Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 907 ff (trans. Jones) (Greek geographer C1st B.C. . 6 - 7 (trans. 222 ff (trans. "[The Indian King Deriades speaks :] I know nothing of Kronos (Cronus), or of Kronides (Cronides) [Zeus] who destroyed his father, nor Kronos the master-deceiver, who swallowed his own children, and shore away from Aither [Ouranos (Uranus)] the hive of begetting love.", Homer, Iliad 15. Trypanis) (Greek poet C3rd B.C.) Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) : Virgil, Georgics 2. "Saturnus [Kronos (Cronus)], as a horse begot the centaur Chiron. 50 ff : "From Saturnus [Kronos (Cronus)] and Ops [Rhea] [were born] : Vesta [Hestia], Ceres [Demeter], Iuno [Hera], Iuppiter [Zeus], Pluto [Haides], Neptunus [Poseidon]. : Lycophron, Alexandra 1191 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) Now some say that Zeus wrestled here with Kronos himself for the throne, while others say that he held the games in honor of his victory over Kronos. ", Pausanias, Description of Greece 8.
drepanon is the Greek word for sickle. Jones) (Greek geographer C1st B.C. . ", Nonnus, Dionysiaca 7. Out of the blood thus shed sprang up the Erinnyes. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) : The child sacrifices offered this god underlined the connection in the Greek mind. After Philyra saw that she had borne a strange species, she asked Jove to change her into another form, and she was transformed into the tree which is called the linden. Hestia was the first-born child of Kronos (Cronus) and so the first to be devoured and last disgorged (i.e. 2. ", Nonnus, Dionysiaca 24. Plato associates the name of Rhea with the verb "to flow" and Kronos with "time" and connects the pair with the gods of the world-river, Okeanos and Tethys.]. : With all that before me, it seemed best that, joining with my mother, I should place myself, a welcome volunteer, on the side of Zeus; and it is by reason of my counsel that the cavernous gloom (melanbaths) of Tartaros (Tartarus) now hides ancient (palaigens) Kronos and his allies within it. 65 ff (trans. "When I come to Kronos' (Cronus') sunlit hill [at Olympia]. Thus having overthrown Ouranos' (Sky's) rule the Titanes retrieved their brothers from Tartaros and gave the power to Kronos. . According to Aeschylus, after Kronos (Cronus) was dethroned by Zeus he cursed his son to suffer the same fate. The truth hid. Rackham) (Roman rhetorician C1st B.C.) There was a shocking monster born of Mother Terra (Earth) [Gaia], a bull, whose back half was a serpent . : Nonnus, Dionysiaca 7. "After Opis [Rhea] had borne Jove [Zeus] by Saturnus [Kronos (Cronus)], Juno [Hera] asked her to give him to her, since Saturnus and cast Orcus [Haides] under Tartarus, and Neptunus [Poseidon] under the sea, because he knew that his son would rob him of the kingdom. Mair) (Greek poet C3rd A.D.) : Ovid, Metamorphoses 9. Conway) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) "King Picus, son of Saturnus [Kronos (Cronus)], ruled the land of Ausonia [Latium], a king whose chief delight was chargers for battle. Source: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. ", Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1. 1231 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. ", Pseudo-Hyginus, Preface (trans. "Aphroi (Africans) : Name of a people; the Karthaginians (Carthaginians). Rhea often complained of much pregnancy and no motherhood, and mourned her fertility. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. For she herself recounted all things to the gods fully, how that with these they would gain victory and a glorious cause to vaunt themselves. Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.). "[Plato constructs philosophical etymologies for the names of the gods :] ", Nonnus, Dionysiaca 28.
Campbell, Vol. The record of victors include Apollon, who outran Hermes and beat Ares at boxing. ", Nonnus, Dionysiaca 41. "[The monster Typhoeus boasts to Zeus of his intentions should he conquer heaven :] And cannibal Kronos (Cronus) I will drag up once more to the light, another brother, to help me in my task, out of the underground abyss; I will break those constraining chains, and bring back the Titanes (Titans) to heaven, and settle under the same roof in the sky the Kyklopes (Cyclopes), sons of Gaia (Gaea). . "Have I [the Titan Prometheus] not seen two sovereigns [Ouranos (Uranus) and Kronos (Cronus)] cast out from these heights [of heaven]? Rhea meanwhile gave Kronos a stone wrapped in the swaddling-cloths to swallow in place of his newborn son. Jones) (Greek geographer C1st B.C. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) : Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1. "Regarding the birth of Zeus and the manner in which he came to be king, there is no agreement. Rackham) (Roman rhetorician C1st B.C.) This was where Kronos (Cronus) son of Ouranos (Uranus), deceiving his consort Rhea, lay with Philyra daughter of Okeanos (Oceanus) in the days when he ruled the Titanes (Titans) in Olympos and Zeus was still a child, tended in the Kretan (Cretan) cave by the Kouretes (Curetes) of Ida. ", Ovid, Fasti 6. 1231 ff (trans. She gave Kronos a drug, by which he was forced to vomit forth first the stone and then the children he had swallowed. 498 ff : Greek Lyric V) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) ", Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 4. "[Plato cautions that men should not use the story of Zeus' punishment of his father Kronos (Cronus) as justification for the mistreatment of their own parents :] When anyone images badly in his speech the true nature of gods and heroes, like a painter whose portraits bear no resemblance to his models. It is certainly right to condemn things like that, he said; but just what do we mean and what particular things? There is, first of all, I said, the greatest lie about the things of greatest concernment, which was no pretty invention of him [Hesiod] who told .
. I sit in glory by the throne of Zeus. 24 (trans. Rackham) (Roman encyclopedia C1st A.D.) : 24 (trans. Rieu) (Greek epic C3rd B.C.) "Lopping it [the vine] with Saturnus' [Kronos' (Cronus')] crooked knife and pruning it into shape. The Titanes numbered six men and five women, being born, as certain writers of myths relate, of Ouranos (Uranus, Sky) and Ge (Earth), but according to others, of one of the Kouretes (Curetes) and Titaia, from whom as their mother they derive the name they have. "Such, too [i.e.
are traced back to a time earlier than the human race, the story being that Kronos (Cronus) and Zeus wrestled there, and that the Kouretes were the first to race at Olympia. Kronos was essentially the same as Khronos (Chronos), the primordial god of time in the Orphic Theogonies. records that Saturnus [Kronos (Cronus)] was the first, before all others, to wear a crown, and Diodoros relates that, after he had defeated the Titanes, Jupiter [Zeus] was rewarded by the rest with this same distinction. Now I, knowing all this before you, have appointed sons of my own to be judges; two from Asia, Minos and Rhadamanthus, and one from Europe, Aiakos (Aeacus).". : . For this reason they call the cape Drepanon. to C1st A.D.) : Plato, Cratylus 396a (trans. "Khiron (Chiron) the son of Philyra . . By the will of Rhea a Golden Dog guarded the goat. In anger he stirs the mighty Titanes to arms and seeks the assistance owed by fate. 203 ff (trans. Their meaning was that the highest element of celestial ether or fire [Ouranos the Sky], which by itself generates all things, is devoid of that bodily part which required union with another for the work of procreation. "[Herakles driven mad by Hera, threatens the gods of heaven :] I'll free Saturnus [Kronos (Cronus)] from his bonds, and against my unfilial father's [Zeus'] lawless sway I'll loose my grandsire. He then married his sister Rhea. There was the father swallowing the stony son, the thing shaped like humanity, in his voracious maw, and making his meal of another pretended Zeus. 2. There she gave birth to the monstrous Kheiron (Chiron), half horse and half divine, the offspring of a lover in questionable shape. 655 ff (trans. ", Pausanias, Description of Greece 9. the armed Kouretes (Curetes) stood guard over him in the cave, banging their spears against their shields to prevent Kronos from hearing the infant's voice. "[Poseidon addresses Iris :] We are three brothers born by Rheia to Kronos (Cronus), Zeus, and I, and the third is Haides, lord of the dead men. "But Kronos (Cronus) once again [after deposing Ouranos (Uranus)] bound the Kyklopes (Cyclopes) and confined them in Tartaros (Tartarus). Conway) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) 92 ff (trans. 68. And many other things were theirs; grain-giving earth, unploughed, bore for them fruit abundantly and without stint; and glad of heart they dwelt upon their tilth throughout the earth, in midst of blessing manifold, rich in their flocks, loved by the blessed gods. This then, is what the myths have to say about Kronos. ", Plato, Cratylus 396a (trans. Day-Lewis) (Roman epic C1st B.C.) ", Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 2. ", Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 5. : Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) "And he [Zeus] was reigning in heaven, himself holding the lightning and glowing thunderbolt, when he had overcome by might his father Kronos (Cronus). "The Olympic games . . Fowler) (Greek philosopher C4th B.C.) Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) : Nonnus, Dionysiaca 24. "The undermost limits of earth and sea, where Iapetos (Iapetus) and Kronos (Cronus) seated have no shining of the sun god Hyperion to delight them nor winds' delight, but Tartaros stands deeply about them. But when the dust has drawn up the blood of a man, once he is dead, there is no return to life. 406 ff (trans. ", Hesiod, Theogony 617 ff (trans. Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.) ", Ovid, Fasti 3. [N.B. 4 - 5 (trans. : 7. To this the poet Hesiod also bears witness in the following words : And they who were Kronos' day, what time he reigned in heaven, lived like gods, no care in heart, remote and free from ills and toils severe, from grievous sicknesses and cares; old age lay not upon their limbs, but they, equal in strength of leg and arm, enjoyed endless delight of feasting far from ills, and when death came, they sank in it as in a sleep.