Though sometimes lacking a coherent strategy, these measures led to very significant developments. 17As a result of the extension of compulsory education (first to 9 and later to 12years ofstudy) and of the broadening of access to pre-school education to all children, between the 1970s and 2011, demand for education grew by more than eight hundred thousand students across the different levels of education. Releases from World Bank, More 8As should be expected, the Portuguese education system experienced visible changes during the last four decades of democracy (Rodriguesetal.,2014). Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; ECB economists say central bank communication has traditionally been aimed primarily at specialists, such as financial market participants, but recently they have made more efforts to reach a wider non-specialist audience. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckv043. 5This was the state of affairs of the Portuguese education system as found by the Armed Forces Movement in April 1974. 2022 May 23;19(10):6324. doi: 10.3390/ijerph19106324. In fact, with regards to the creation of wealth, this progress was particularly significant from the 1980s onwards, encompassing Portugals accession to the European Union (EU) and the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), and the whole momentum generated by this integration. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI). Reaching over 400,000 people a week with news about Portugal, written in English, Dutch, German, French, Swedish, Spanish, Italian, Russian, Romanian, Turkish and Chinese. This came as a result of the demographic changes observed in Portugal, illustrated in a drop in the fertility and birthrates. Hence, at the time of this study, there was a recurring inability to implement a global, integrated and coherent educational project, confirming the idea that the education sector was effectively , clearly lagging behind other national sectors. This decrease contrasted with the reality observed across other levels of education, where the number of schools and enrolled students continued to increase as a clear result of changes in the democratization of the education system and in thePortuguesementality. 21As previously mentioned, there was an immediate and sudden decrease in the number of primary schools in operation. Nevertheless, very modest goals were set with regards to compulsory schooling.

Furthermore, the results suggest that "navigation in the health system" tasks are the most challenging tasks regarding specific health literacies. Over the last forty years, keeping pace with profound changes at the social, economic, demographic and cultural levels, the Portuguese education system worked to address many of its problems by making political commitments and taking strategic actions. Insupport of this perception - and despite acknowledging the merit of initiatives such as the Popular Education Plan and the National Adult Education Campaign, which began in1952 theUNESCOteam found an almost complete lack of pre-school education, a low degree of internal efficiency, archaic syllabi and methods, channels enabling social discrimination, evidence of an excessive degree of centralization and regional disparities, and a very poor training of some categories of teaching staff members. 23Considering the historical, recurring and impressive backwardness in terms of literacy and schooling rates in Portugal, the least that can be said is that a very significant effort was made to significantly reverse this situation over these past four decades of democracy. In Portugal, News, Lisbon, By Bruno G. Santos, We are proud to provide our readers from around the world with independent, honest and unbiased news for free both online and in print.Our dedicated team supports the local community, foreign residents and visitors of all nationalities through our newspaper, website, social media and our newsletter. The site is secure. Explore resources provided by the Research Division at the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, Mediterranean Questions, Evidence of climate change and its effects in the Mediterranean, Segregation in the cities of the European Mediterranean, Geomorphology and geoarchaeology of Black Sea coasts, Mediterranean coastal wetlands: dynamics and management issues, Changing spaces of economic activities in the Mediterranean basin, The quality of the environment in urban zones: a multidisciplinary assessment, Agrarian aeras: landscape dynamics, ground laws, parties involved and planning, Mediterranean rivers and their margins: processes and mangement, North Africa and Globalization - Subalternity, territorial fragmentation. Fig. This growth is linked to the advent of mass education in Portugal and reflects the huge investment made in the training of the teaching staff: the number of basic and secondary education teachers increased from 26,000 to140,000 (almost all of them professionalized). Send us your comments or opinion on this article. This came as a result of the demographic changes observed in Portugal, illustrated in a drop in the fertility and birthrates.

The graph shows the level of financial literacy of the general public in each of the 19 eurozone countries. -, Srensen K., van den Broucke S., Pelikan J.M., Fullam J., Doyle G., Slonska Z., Kondilis B., Stoffels V., Osborne R.H., Brand H., et al. This situation is a natural consequence of an easier access to higher education that clearly resulted from the democratization of the country and which led to the creation of better socioeconomic life standards (TableI). 4 - Restructuring of the school network in the municipalities of Guarda and Sta Comba Do, in 2000 and 2017. To find out more about the cookies we use, see our Cookies Policy. in 1970, the aging index showed a ratio of 34seniors per 100youngsters, while in the last census there were almost 128seniors per 100youngsters). In Portugal, Environment, Porto & North, Sustainability, By PA/TPN, Nevertheless, as copiously expressed by various bodies, all this investment in education and training still offers a small contribution to a satisfactory increase in labor productivity. Disclaimer, National Library of Medicine Lopatina M, Berens EM, Klinger J, Levin-Zamir D, Kostareva U, Aringazina A, Drapkina O, Pelikan JM. Annual, Adult (15+) literacy rate (%). ), 40 Anos de Polticas de Educao em Portugal: A Construo do Sistema Democrtico de Ensino, Coimbra, Almedina, p.327-352. 1 - Resident Population in Portugal between 1981 and 2011. Finally, when analyzing the results for Math, we find that Portuguese students improved their score by 38points, when compared to the 2000 average. 10The last four decades have shown a decrease in the fertility and birth rates, in parallel with a significant increase in the aging indicators (e.g. 1Over the past four decades, Portugal experienced a very significant number of political, economic, social and cultural changes, all of which had inevitable repercussions in the education sector. BMC Public Health. The Portuguese average is 498points, five points higher than the OECD average. In 1974, though schooling was available for all children between 7 and 11 years of age, Portugal faced an illiteracy rate of 21% for the population aged fifteen years or over and there were huge inequalities in the access to the different levels of study and between different regions. Portugal occupies the last position in the financial literacy ranking of the 19 countries of the euro zone in 2020, according to a graphic in the article The ECBs communication with the general public, published by the European Central Bank (ECB). If we consider only the 35OECD countries that participated in the study, Portugal occupies the 17th place. ; ; UNESCO Institute for Statistics; Weighted average; Each economy is classified based on the classification of World Bank Group's fiscal year 2018 (July 1, 2017-June 30, 2018). This backwardness was expressed in a still very high illiteracy rate and in excessively low levels of educational attainment and qualification of young people and of the population at large (BARRETO,2002). STOERS.R., (1982), Educao, estado e desenvolvimento em Portugal, Livros Horizonte, Lisboa, 90 p. SINGERA., PEZONEM., (2003), Education for Social Change: From Theory to Practice, Workplace, 10, p.145-151. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 22Nevertheless, this same society continues to face a serious problem that affects its education system - school failure and early school leaving in lower levels of education -, though these numbers have been declining (Ferreiraetal., 2015; Cordeiro and Alcoforado,2015). The second period, lasting from the Second World War to the Carnation Revolution, was noted for a phase of economic growth and capitalist expansion combined with a powerful repressive apparatus, as part of an articulation that sought to make education offer a significant contribution to a flourishing and renewed economy. Assessing and monitoring health literacy is critical to support interventions and policies to improve health literacy. The tertiarization of the economy was reflected in the new standards and demands of families, leading to a sharp increase in consumption levels to record high figures. Moreover, civic participation and the commitment to individual and collective (trans)formation activities make us believe there is a real need to link educational practices to broader concerns of personal and social change across different communities of belonging. ), 40 Anos de Polticas de Educao em Portugal: A Construo do Sistema Democrtico de Ensino, Coimbra, Almedina, p.35-88. But few people receive news about the ECB on social media. In fact, over the last four decades, the number of 14-year-old teenagers attending school increased from just 35%, in 1970, to 100%, in 1997. Portugal it has, according to UNESCO, an adult literacy rate of 96.14%.

However, when compared to other EUcountries, Portugal still suffers from structural training and qualification deficits, mostly expressed in the countrys failure and dropout rates and in the low level of qualification of the resident working-age population. Int J Environ Res Public Health. -, Srensen K., Pelikan J.M., Rthlin F., Ganahl K., Slonska Z., Doyle G., Fullam J., Kondilis B., Agrafiotis D., Uiters E., et al. You can change how much you give or cancel your contributions at any time. Entry level access to the CEIC platform for individual users. With regards to reading literacy, there was an improvement of 28points, when compared to the results of 2000. As a result of the transition from the elitist school model, ideologically supported by the dictatorial regime, to the democratic school model that followed the 1974 Revolution (especially after the enactment of the Basic Law on Education, in 1986), the number of students receiving higher education increased from 49,461, in 1970/71, to 403,445, in 2010/11, a figure that reflects the proliferation of higher education establishments over the recent decades. In this field, Portugal ranks 29th (among70countries) with an average of 492 points (OECD average478 points) and 22nd if we consider only the OECD countries (with an average of 490points). This challenge forces us to think of education using a synchronic and diachronic logic, providing an educational offer encompassing all areas of life, maintaining and improving the national indicators that have gradually been stabilized, at the same time incorporating integrated (economic, social and cultural) and sustained (including all citizens for a longer period of time) territorial development projects to help diversify life experiences and to contribute to significantly reverse the existing inequalities in their different manifestations. In this respect, and though differences may be due to major societal changes, it is also true that two of the values that showed a more significant change were the GDP per capita, which increased from 136.90 to 16,686.3 euros, and the annual minimum wage, which increased from 214 euros, in 1974, to 8,120 euros in the present day. As a result of the extension of compulsory education (first to 9 and later to 12years ofstudy) and of the broadening of access to pre-school education to all children, between the 1970s and 2011, demand for education grew by more than eight hundred thousand students across the different levels of education. ,1975). Thus, it can be used in Portugal to assess the population's needs and monitor and evaluate policies and initiatives to promote health literacy by addressing its societal, environmental, personal, and situational modifiable determinant factors. ,1982), with the more or less visible and explicit support of different international organizations. Though in terms of demography the situation may be seen as complex, there has been a clear and almost exponential improvement across the remaining indicators. A part of these initiatives can be viewed , as a contribution to the implementation of the principle of equal opportunity and the (circumstantial) expansion of social and cultural rights. In addition, as a result of the demographic changes and improved accessibility, we must also highlight the significant redefinition of the school network across all levels of education, which entailed both the closure of 11,969primaryschools and the increase in the number of schools covering other levels of education over 1,780schools. July 22, 2022. With regards to both the completion/conclusion rates at the secondary education level and the pre-schooling rate, the recent trend shows an increase from 67.9% to 83.4% and from 78.3% to 90.9%, respectively. BMC Public Health.

Scree plot for exploratory factor analysis. This decline was especially visible in the9 to14agegroup, which showed a negligible illiteracy rate of 0.4% (this number was over 25% in the beginning of the second half of the 20th century) (. annual minimum wage, which increased from 214 euros, in 1974, to 8,120 euros in the present day. The Portuguese society modernized itself and the countrys economic environment improved significantly, facilitating business and job creation. We appreciate that not everyone can afford to pay for our services but if you are able to, we ask you to support The Portugal News by making a contribution no matter how small. On this last point, the recent extension of compulsory education to twelve years and the fairer distribution of young students across the different pathways of secondary education should be highlighted. Health literacy in Europe: Comparative results of the European health literacy survey (HLS-EU) Eur. Srensen K., van den Broucke S., Fullam J., Doyle G., Pelikan J.M., Slonska Z., Brand H., (HLS-EU) Consortium European Health Literacy Project Health literacy and public health: A systematic review and integration of definitions and models. Epub 2017 Dec 29. En 1974, malgr une scolarisation ouverte tous les enfants gs de 7 11 ans, le Portugal devait faire face un taux d'analphabtisme de 21% pour la population ge de quinze ans ou plus, avec de grandes ingalits d'accs aux diffrents niveaux d'tudes et des dsquilibres gographiques criants. In News, Portugal, By TPN, Fig. In Portugal, Community, Entertainment, Events, By TPN, Processing health-related information [7]. 16In addition, as a result of the demographic changes and improved accessibility, we must also highlight the significant redefinition of the school network across all levels of education, which entailed both the closure of 11,969primaryschools and the increase in the number of schools covering other levels of education over 1,780schools. This was the state of affairs of the Portuguese education system as found by the Armed Forces Movement in April 1974. However, when considering this extraordinary transformation in such a short period of time, we must bear in mind that these indicators are not uniform across the country. With regards to economic dynamism and employment, positive changes have clearly taken place following the transition to a democratic regime. SANTOSL., CORDEIROA.M.R., ALCOFORADOL., (2016), Planeamento de recursos educativos em Portugal ao longo dos ltimos 80 anos, Revista Educao e Emancipao, vol. In fact, these changes were expressed in a significant quantitative and qualitative leap made evident by the PISA indicators for the last triennium. ,2014). Whether as a desirable influence or a natural consequence, the Portuguese education system was gradually associated with the different forms of development, reflecting very deep changes that arose from the need to keep pace with most countries, especially those from Central and Northern Europe, after having lagged behind them for several decades.

Generally, 'literacy' also encompasses 'numeracy', the ability to make simple arithmetic calculations.

Instituto Nacional de Estatstica I.P., (2012), Censos 2011, resultados definitivos, Instituto Nacional de Estatstica, Lisboa. Despite this remarkable progress, Portugals GDP per capita in 2016 was 23% lower than the EUaverage, failing to meet one of the common goalseconomic convergence between EUmember countries. doi: 10.1016/j.procs.2016.09.277. In Portugal, News, Politics, Economy. This came as a result of both the serious depopulation of the rural interior, due to a considerable migration rate, and of a decrease in the school population attending this level of education, observed from the beginning of the 1980s onwards. As in other historical moments, many people blamed the education system for the social and cultural backwardness of the country. 9, n 2, p.13-35. sharing sensitive information, make sure youre on a federal En dpit de dcisions parfois incohrentes, ces mesures ont conduit cependant des ralisations trs importantes. By Quentin Ferreira Mediterranean Coastline: withdraw towns back from the coastline; protect ourselves from the sea? travers lanalyse des bases de donnes et des documents juridiques disponibles, cette recherche propose un aperu des progrs enregistrs en mettant l'accent sur les changements lgislatifs, la refonte de l'offre ducative, lvolution des cursus et du rseau ducatif, et en tablissant un lien avec d'autres dimensions du dveloppement du systme ducatif portugais. The literacy rate, has increased in recent years. The main interest in Portugal is FootballA lot of Portuguese do not know there own country let alone they are Slaves to the EU and ECBGo Benfica! Instant access to full history data in excel. It should also be added that, as observed for other aspects related to the link between education and development, and contrary to what is expressed in the national averages, there is a great diversity of results, reflecting the socioeconomic (and educational) contexts of these territorial mosaics. Available via annual subscription to one or more of CEICs global and premium databases. In this respect, the impact of the changes in the gross schooling rates across the different levels of education is very enlightening: numbers rose from 2.9% to 87.4% in pre-school education (3-5years of age), from 88.1% to 122.2% in basic education (6-15years of age) and from 5.9% to almost 135%. They define the general public as the non-specialised public and representative professional organizstions such as business associations, trade unions, political groups, etc. Some of the most evident achievements include the enrollment of (virtually) all children in pre-school education and the very significant increase in the percentage of the young and adult population attending higher levels of education. While the male literacy rate is 97.35%, for females is 95.07%. In this regard, the only decrease in numbers concerned the students attending primary education. If we take this to be true, this relation can be easily spotted in the Portuguese reality by analyzing the collected indicators and the current characteristics of the country, for example, in terms of social development. Nevertheless, very modest goals were set with regards to compulsory schooling. Insupport of this perception - and despite acknowledging the merit of initiatives such as the Popular Education Plan and the National Adult Education Campaign, which began in1952 theUNESCOteam found an almost complete lack of pre-school education, a low degree of internal efficiency, archaic syllabi and methods, channels enabling social discrimination, evidence of an excessive degree of centralization and regional disparities, and a very poor training of some categories of teaching staff members. A mudana social em Portugal, 1960-1999, Lisboa, Imprensa de Cincias Sociais. Cultural Adaptation and Validity Testing of the Portuguese Version of the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ). Thus, in comparison with the first edition of PISA, in2000, Portugal improved its score by 42points, occupying the 22nd place in a total of 70countries.

Source: based on data from the National Statistical Institute of Portugal and PORDATA. ,2008), while others favored freedom of instruction and created conditions to effectively strengthen the private education sector.

18In this respect, the impact of the changes in the gross schooling rates across the different levels of education is very enlightening: numbers rose from 2.9% to 87.4% in pre-school education (3-5years of age), from 88.1% to 122.2% in basic education (6-15years of age) and from 5.9% to almost 135%1 in secondary education (16 to 18years of age).