[17], A more fruitful avenue is to treat the 430-year figure of Exod 12:40 as representing a schematic number.

0000177222 00000 n What is the account/testimony of Scripture?" That is because the genealogical data in verses of the latter type appear to have originated independently, before their eventual incorporation into the grand chronological schemes of verses of the former type. However, another difficulty might seem to arise from The short sojourn position, both in its usual minimum version or in the adjusted version presented above, fits a literal reading of Moses' genealogy from Levi (Ex 6:16-20), noting that Levi's son Kohath had already been born when Jacob entered Egypt (Gen 46:11). Now, Abraham's act of faith mentioned in Gal 3:6 and God's promise to Abraham and to his offspring mentioned in Gal 3:16 are in Gen 15:6 and 15:18 respectively, within the event known as "Covenant of the pieces". and the exodus connected to the reign of Ramses II (probably in the middle of the thirteenth century B.C.E., one generation before Merneptah refers to an Israelite presence in Canaan during the last quarter of that century). Noahs Flood: a Historical, Global Catastrophe. I did not dispute that there is biblical evidence (even if it is contradictory, as noted above) and I see no one disputing that there is No extra-biblical evidence. 0000001276 00000 n 10); New York: Doubleday, 2001, p. 236. , . [25] The same idea underlies the Rabbinic comment on Isa 60:22 which b. Sanhedrin 98a interprets as meaning . Site design / logo 2022 Stack Exchange Inc; user contributions licensed under CC BY-SA. 0000128230 00000 n Since the Covenant of the pieces must have been before Sarai gave Hagar to Abram as a wife, which happened "after Abram had lived ten years in the land of Canaan" (Gen 16:3): The 400-year interval of servitude and affliction of Abraham's offspring prophecied in Gen 15:13 implies: 400 = 430 - (25 + b - a) How does one show this complex expression equals a natural number? 100. 0000009753 00000 n What would the ancient Romans have called Hercules' Club?

Text in table not staying left aligned when I use the set length command. . May the Most High Bless you. 0000128161 00000 n Jewish scholars long ago realised that there is a problem with the number of years the Israelites spent in Egypt. Since 430 is not elsewhere a typological number, it likely belongs to the latter category. This site is protected by reCAPTCHA, and the Google Skipping a calculus topic (squeeze theorem). Please refresh the page and try again. Or was it 430 years?. Can anyone Identify the make, model and year of this car? Simply put, the nation was named after Jacob/Israel, but it started with Abraham. 84102. So we must let Scripture shed light on itself. [16] For details, see Baruch Halpern, The Exodus and the Israelite Historians, Eretz-Israelvol. Your answer is simple, neat, and easy to understand. Schematic numbers are used in various parts of the Bible to express wholeness (e.g. In Genesis 15:13 God told Abram that his descendants would be slaves in a foreign land for 400 years. However, this sort of thinking reveals our beliefs about Scripture: is it really inerrant? Isaac is weaned and Ishmael mocks/persecutes Isaac. 405 0 obj<>stream Furthermore, if the biblical traditions concerning the exodus have a historical kernel, this figure works well: the Israelite migration to Egypt would be connected to the period of Hyksos domination (beginning in approximately the second quarter of the seventeenth century B.C.E.) However, one salient reason for viewing at least the chronologically schematic framework verses (such as Exod 12:40 and 1 Kgs 6:1) as late creations is that they come to impose an overall pattern on the material, even at the cost of not being able to accommodate all of the data. (75 + a). Once we realize this, we can then look at the passage and realize that this statement made by Moses actually adds clarity. 0000000016 00000 n Short Answer: The Israelites were enslaved in Egypt for 400 years. It is clear, from Scripture, that Moses was the author/collator of the first five books of the Bible, the Pentateuch. 258262 and vol. 0000073852 00000 n Were the Israelites in Egypt for only 215 years? [14] Another possibility is that the fourth generation is a general expression for a long amount of time. Did Abraham leave Haran before or after his father died? 0000004164 00000 n The book of Josephus Book 2 Chapter 15 para 2 2. 1, p. 423 [Hebrew]. This genealogy account creates a three generation span between those who descended to Egypt and those who participated in the exodus (rather than just two), but it still does not significantly close the gap of 430 years demanded by the literal understanding of Exod 12:40. 16 Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. Gal 3:16-17 says that the law came 430 years after Abraham received the promise of blessing (in Gen 12). Cassuto attempts to square the 430 years of Exod 12:40 with the life spans given in Exod 67 for Levi, Kohath, Amram, and Aaron, but only by treating the figures sequentially and by arbitrarily lopping off precisely 60 years for the period of time that Levi and Kohath were not yet in Egypt. Therefore Levi was at least 45 when he came to Egypt. 24 (Abraham Malamat Volume); Jerusalem: The Israel Exploration Society, 1993, pp. The bile didn't say that Israelites would be in captivity for 400 yrs.  I For this reason, they decided that the 430 years was not just the period in slavery, as reported in Exodus, but that it started at the time Abraham received the promise, a revision that nicely fits in with 215 years. From the beginning to the Exodus you could not get 400 yrs. 0000002312 00000 n Some think that this period of affliction started with Ishmael mocking Isaac. How, then, should we understand the statement of Gen 15:16 that the fourth generation will return to Canaan, which actually better fits the genealogical information noted above? The law came 430 years after the promise that God gave Abraham unto the Exodus. Terms of Service apply. 0000004625 00000 n

Even if Yocheved was born in the very last year of Levi's life (92 years later) she would have been 228 (400 - 80 - 92) when Moses was born! The proper approach, since it is Gods infallible Word, is to ask, Since this cannot be in error, how is my understanding in error?. It is striking that the Septuagint version of Exod 12:40 is recorded in the Mekhilta (Bo, parasha 14) as one of the cases in which the sages engaged by the Egyptian king Ptolemy to translate the Torah into Greek purposely deviated from the plain sense of the text.[6]. Abraham is told that his children will sojourn in "a land that is is not their own" for 400 years (Genesis 15:13). Many commentators over the years have tried to explain these differences with various ideas. By clicking Accept all cookies, you agree Stack Exchange can store cookies on your device and disclose information in accordance with our Cookie Policy. trailer Lawrence E. Stager, author of Forging an Identity: The Emergence of Ancient Israel (The Oxford History of the Biblical World) says the evidence from language, costume, coiffure, and material remains suggest that the early Israelites were a rural subset of Canaanite culture and largely indistinguishable from Transjordanian rural cultures as well. Grep excluding line that ends in 0, but not 10, 100 etc. On the fusing of memories from various periods of Egyptian history in the Exodus tradition, see especially William H. C. Propp, Exodus 1940: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary (Anchor Bible, vol. On that point I rest my case. 403 49 In sum, the evidence above implies that for the authors of these texts, the period of Israelite habitation in Egypt was far less than 430 years. Seeing the Letter Tet in a Dream: 9th Anniversary, Study the Torah with Academic Scholarship, By using this site you agree to our Terms of Use. : For (KE = 2, KBA = 50, ABM = 90), sojourn time = 218 years. 0000011417 00000 n Were the ancients just not very good at math? ), Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1978, vol. Substracting from that the time elapsed from Abraham's birth to Jacob's entry into Egypt: we obtain the absolute minimum short sojourn duration: 505 - 290 = 215 years. Not only did he record Gods eyewitness account of what happened (Exodus 24:18), but he would have been educated well in Pharaohs house in the history of Egypt as well as in the History of his people (Exodus 2:711). Is a neuron's information processing more complex than a perceptron? [9] Gen 39:17; 41:57; Exod 12:15; Isaiah 2:20; Hosea 8:2, etc. If, and only if, both events happened within a few months, so that Abraham was still 75 y.o. script>. Long sojourn: 430 years. Covenant of the pieces (Gen ch. Some of the ancient versions solved this problem by extending the period of 430 years back to Abrahams arrival in Canaan. Wait! If people would count in dozens, then 432 years would amount to a quarter of a millennium. 0000003622 00000 n 15, as stated by Paul in Gal 3:17. Accordingly, the Septuagint and Samaritan Pentateuch solve the problem by adding the stay in Canaan explicitly into Exod 12:40: The added phrase does not appear in the same spot in the LXX and the SP, suggesting that they are not dependent on another, and that this solution was suggested twice, independently of each other, in each of these versions. 0000178056 00000 n you only come up with about 190-215 years. Wikimedia. What happens if I accidentally ground the output of an LDO regulator? Included in the priestly corpus are the toledot passages in Genesis 5 and 11 that list the ages of the figures between Adam and Abraham at fatherhood and at death, as well as Exod 12:40 itself. 0 the books of Daniel and Jubilees). 0000074622 00000 n Given that the Hebrew word used for "afflict" in Genesis 15 is the same used in Exodus 1 to describe how the taskmasters "afflicted" the Israelites after they had multiplied, but a different word is used to describe Ishmael's mockery, I find it easier to take all of these passages plainly with Exodus 12:40, and to assume non-chronology in Galatians, than to assume literal time from Galatians and explain away all the others. ( ) , . startxref the notion of a 400 year enslavement with the briefer period allowed for by the genealogies). (28) It was the eightieth year of the age of Moses, and of that of Aaron three more. The answer is 300 years. But even this figure is too high to accommodate the 2-3 generations of the Israelites stay in Egypt. In the Septuagint original text book of Exodus 12:40 And the sojourning of the children of Israel, while they sojourned in the land of Egypt and the land of Chanaan, was four hundred and thirty years. As opposed to Rambans understanding of Gen 15:13, according to which the period of Abrams descendants dispossession antedates the onset of their servitude, the fact remains that the dispossession and servitude are referred to in such syntactical proximity that it is hard to escape the impression that they are intended to be completely overlapping with each other for the full 400 year period mentioned at the end of the verse.[12]. Thus the Israelites, as a national group, never spent any time enslaved in Egypt, although small numbers of individuals may well have done so. Samuel Davidson, D.D, in An Introduction to the Old Testament, Critical, Historical, and Theological, Containing a Discussion of the Most Important Questions Belonging to the Several Books (published 1862), page 223, disputes this expedient, saying "Why the previous sojourn in Canaan should be inserted does not appear; and it would certainly be inappropriate." Jacob is born (Gen 25:26). 0000177655 00000 n Denoting Kohath's age at the entry into Egypt as KE, Kohath's age at Amram's birth as KBA and Amram's age at Moses' birth as ABM, and knowing that Moses was 80 y.o. Internet Explorer is no longer supported. xref Moses was 80 years old at the time of the Exodus (Exodus 7:7). Be sure to visit the. Yes. 403 0 obj <> endobj 0000006399 00000 n <]>> 8687. Dr. David Glatt-Gilad is a senior lecturer in the Department of Bible, Archaeology, and the Ancient Near East at Ben-Gurion University. God makes the promise to Abraham and he leaves Haran. Oops! In books and articles it is often claimed that the Israelites were only in Egypt for 215 years. Is there any criminal implication of falsifying documents demanded by a private party? JavaScript front end for Odin Project book library database, Sum of Convergent Series for Problem Like Schrdingers Cat. 0000006839 00000 n [23] These latter notices evidently stemmed from what is referred to in scholarship as the Deuteronomistic school, i.e.

0000046986 00000 n Egypt is not specified and neither is it clear that the suffering and enslavement would last the full 400 years (in the cantorial notes there is full stop, which functions like a semi-colon) before the words "400 years"). Might it carry any historical value, or is it preferable to interpret it through a symbolic prism? "no evidence"? Similarly, 1 Kgs 6:1 reflects a schematic system that incorporates Exod 12:40 and its schematic substratum, but without being able to accommodate the notices in the Book of Judges that relate to the judges periods of service and the interludes between them.[23]. endstream endobj 404 0 obj<>/StructTreeRoot 12 0 R/Metadata 401 0 R/MarkInfo<>>> endobj 406 0 obj<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>>/StructParents 0>> endobj 407 0 obj<> endobj 408 0 obj<>stream Scientifically plausible way to sink a landmass. window.location.replace(""); Israel received the law the same year they left Egypt. It implies that the 430-year interval of Ex 12:40 began when Jacob entered Egypt. How to help player quickly make a decision when they have no way of knowing which option is best, a (Time elapsed between Abraham's departure from Haran in Gen 12:4-5 and the promise), b (Isaac's age at the event beginning the servitude and affliction of Abraham's offspring prophecied in Gen 15:13). 0 = 30 - 25 - b + a Connect and share knowledge within a single location that is structured and easy to search. If the event beginning the servitude and affliction of Abraham's offspring prophecied in Gen 15:13 was Akedah, from a practical viewpoint, for Isaac to be able to carry the wood of the burnt offering on top of himself, his realistic minimum age at Akedah is b = 8, so that a = 3, and the Israelites spent 218 years in Egypt. - - - . One passage in the Mekhilta (Bo, parasha 14) clearly recognizes that the figure of a 400 year enslavement does not square with the notion of a mere four generation absence from the land of Israel and thus infers. rev2022.7.21.42639. Text and Context: Torah and Historical Truth, North Israelite Memories of the Transjordan and the Mesha Inscription, Authorship of the Torah: The Position of Ibn Ezra and Yehuda HaChasid. Here is a video that explains it perfectly: The video posted above seems, for some mysterious reason, to think that the 450 years mentioned in Acts 13:20 refer to the time spent in Egypt. There is nothing in the chronologies that indicates anything different. 25 years passed before he got his son Isaac, who lived 60 years until he got his son Jacob, who was 130 years old when he entered Egypt. Sumerian king list all the way down through Jewish literature of the Second Temple period (e.g. 0000166550 00000 n Abraham has lived in Canaan for 10 years and takes Hagar as his wife and she conceives Ishmael. This also fits with Acts 7:6 and Ex 12:40-41. [7], 2) In order to account for the discrepancy between Exod 12:40 that refers to 430 years of sojourning and Gen 15:13 that speaks of 400 years, the rabbis suggested that God relayed the prophecy concerning the 400 years to Abraham 30 years before Isaacs birth.[8]. 0000004190 00000 n In adopting the classical rabbis approach, Ramban offers a syntactical explanation of Gen 15:13 designed to demonstrate that the hallmark of the 400-year period between Isaacs birth and the redemption from Egypt was that Abrahams descendants would be living as resident aliens, not that they would be physically enslaved for this entire period: Ramban goes on to cite various other verses which make better sense if for the purpose of explication, their clauses are rearranged. 2, pp. ? Jacob and his family moved to Egypt, during the famine, 215 years after Gods promise to Abraham. It is beyond the scope of this essay to deal with the date of the Priestly literature as a whole. Only 64 years pass from the time Joseph dies to when Moses is born.. Moses is placed in a basket and adopted by Pharaohs daughter. Galatians 3:15-17 Brethren, I speak after the manner of men; Though it be but a man's covenant, yet if it be confirmed, no man disannulleth, or addeth thereto. It reveals how one approaches Scripture. Is there anything in Genesis to suggest why the ancient Israelites were made to be slaves in Egypt?

There are two positions on the time elapsed between Jacob's entry into Egypt and the Exodus: Short sojourn: 215 years. Conclusion: There is nothing in the Biblical chronology that indicates they were only in bondage in Egypt for 215 years. One interesting fact, for example, is that Isaac was still alive (he was 168) when Joseph was sold into slavery. Here's the chronology as provided in the Hebrew Scriptures: When Jacob (Israel) was 130 he and his sons went to Egypt, After some time the Egyptians became jealous and fearful and enslaved the Israelites as prophesied, The Israelites were enslaved in Egypt for 400 years, The sons of Israel were in Egypt for 430 years, which means they were in Egypt 30 years before they were enslaved (that clarifies the unknown from the previous note above), When Jacob and his sons entered Egypt, they were in the 2nd year of famine, The years of famine were immediately preceded by 7 years of plenty, Joseph stood before Pharoah and interpreted his dream about the impending plenty/famine when he was 30 years old, That makes Jacob about 91 years old when he had Joseph, and Joseph about 69 years old when the Israelites were enslaved.

because this was the tradition in ancient times. reveals that the nation of Israel began with him). [4] See Exod 6:23 and Numbers 1:7; 3:3; 7:12, , , [7] This point is brought out clearly in the rabbinic treatise Seder Olam Rabbah chapter 3, followed by Rashi to Gen 15:13. This indeed works out to a 400 year or so duration of the Israelites stay in Egypt. Positing a 400 year plus stay in Egypt might seem attractive for several reasons. Already Spinoza in chapter 9 of his Theologico-Political Treatise dealt at length with the discrepancy between 1 Kgs 6:1 and the scattered chronological notices in the books of Judges and Samuel. So, Moses rounding off dates seems meaningless considering his knowledge, not to mention his attention to detail when it came to chronologies. How do we know that the 'land' in Gen 15:13 is Egypt? He cites Kalisch's Commentary on Exodus on the absurdity of such a short sojourn, 215 years in Egypt: The oppressive measures of the Egyptian king for checking the increase and annihilating the energies of the Israelites, must have commenced at least 100 years before the Exodus, because Moses was then eighty years old, and already a considerable time before his birth the cruel policy of the king had been carried into effect. Furthermore, before Jacob had children, an entity called the children of Israel did not exist,[11] so that the reckoning of the children of Israels stay in Egypt can by definition only commence from when Jacobs children migrated there. nn is X's age at that moment if X is a figure, or the number of years that have elapsed from X if X is an event. at the time of the promise, then the time elapsed from Abraham's birth to the Exodus was: Abraham's birth - Exodus = 75 + 430 = 505 years. Thus, short sojourn times can be achieved in a number of ways, such as e.g. However, the Genesis narrative of ch.