There are many big trees providing cool shade for them. Visiting the hill tribes you still can find the traditional Phnong houses. X$[]}_CSgE cwE[$/Hx~\K$jA,N-Q5i}pVJTE:")D,{EC%+KR|FlHB6lJ l%^Ovmo'~,OQ1 !H`oGjG44_vjs. An alternative would be to stop by in the morning and tell them what you want for lunch or evening meal. The sanctuary forms part of the 1 million hectare of land in the Eastern Plains. Next to Lak Pok Bras waterfall is the home of an indigenous ethnic group. Travelers can have a feel of the local rustic setting in the village. how many provinces are there in cambodia? If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner. During the COP26 UN climate summit in Glasgow, Scotland in November, Cambodia, Nearly 200 families of Andong Kraloeng village in Mondulkiri province are calling on authorities to prevent further clearing of land in the community by a powerful, The ORaing district administration office in Mondulkiri province. Unfortunately in recent years the selling of real estate has became a big source of income due to the fact that international mining companies are buying land to find bauxite. Depending on the region, districts are often further divided into smaller administrative units, called tehsils or talukas or mavattams. It serves their guests fresh, tasty and reasonable dishes. There are various sorts of gongs used for different occasions. It's about 143 kilometers to Snoul and 275 kilometers for the entire trip. Jars and gongs are among the most valuable possessions in an indigenous community in traditional, spiritual or material terms. In the houses you can find traditional gongs and big jars, whereby the last ones are said to be more than a thousand years old. Currently, India consists of 36 administrative states and union territories, which are further divided into districts and more granular units.

Boo Sra Waterfall (43 kilometers from Sen Monorom) is located in Pich Chinda District and is regarded as the most beautiful waterfall in Modulkiri. It's situated down the hill from the center and then left before you pass the bridge. There are definitely some nice bracelets, adornments or Kramas made by the hill tribes. Im the honored owner of Cambodia-Travel. Vietnam has a big influence on Mondulkiri. {{::lang.NameEnglish}} - {{::lang.NameNative}}, {{::mainImage.info.license.name || 'Unknown'}}, {{current.info.license.usageTerms || current.info.license.name || current.info.license.detected || 'Unknown'}}, Uploaded by: {{current.info.uploadUser}} on {{current.info.uploadDate | date:'mediumDate'}}. There are more than 569 families living in the Lak Pok Bras area, whose main occupations are farming. Some of the protected species in the sanctuary are tiger, Asian elephant, wild water buffalo, jungle cat, and deer and so on. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. is 1.5 kilometers from the town center on the main road, which goes to Snoul. You are a long way from help in most stretches of this remote trail. It's a good environment in which to unobtrusively observe their attire and with their permission; possibly get snapshots of them going about their normal business at the market. It is home to 7500 inhabitants, 20 guesthouses, 12 restaurants, 3 bars and no post office.

The WWF has also helped the government in the undertaking. If I actually sold my land to someone else, then I would let them have it, Ten said. Make sure you have spate parts for your motorcycle, and plenty of food and drinking water. The unpaved dust road is nowadays under construction and will definitely become better in oncoming times. Its capital Sen Monorom is about 375 kilometers from Phnom Penh. x][w7r~GNBht7Zo^d/r~0"GXf8nM= P( BP@g7ous#A6SvlfO`\4oXs'`OcmO Ean alleges that Mony has not protected the legitimate interests of ordinary people and has only protected the rich and powerful in his role as district governor. Cambodias third-level administrative division is the Khmer (** khum/** sangkat) region.

E-mail: [emailprotected], A world citizen since 2011. How Many Districts Are There In Cambodia? Gaur mother and calf spotted grazing with herd of cows, Coca-Cola selling Cambodia, Vietnam assets to Hong Kong-listed Swire Pacific, No quarantine for unvaccinated arrivals if rapid test negative, Thirty more Cambodian artefacts set to arrive home in September, Thai uni offers scholarships to 40 Cambodian students: PM, Mondulkiri governor warns owners against illegal plot subdivisions, Mondulkiri district refutes claims of illegal land title issuance, Taskforce to fight all state land grabs in Mkiri forests, Mondulkiri court director apologises for defaming cabinet chief in land row, Mondulkiri families seek help in land row vs powerful officer, Mondulkiri land division segment gains traction, Official awaits verdict over failure to report landgrab, Intruders ordered to remove constructions on Mondulkiri hills, Ten identified in Mondulkiri land dispute. Mlou Ten, a representative of the people in Pou Chhop village of ORaing districts Dak Dam commune, said his land and that of seven other families totalling more than 30ha in the village had been allocated to Chanthou by the authorities without letting them know about it first. riverside mondulkiri cambodia visa Revenue collection is one of these local responsibilities that these units are responsible for. Rum Near Waterfall (10.5 kilometers from Sen Monorom) is located in Sen Monorum District in and has a good location near plantations for rubber, coffee, cashew, mango and avocado, During the rainy season, the waterfall is five meters high. There is also a meeting room, with many facilities available. A restaurant on the corner of a main intersection doesnt have a name, but it's easy to find. Riverside (150 kilometers from Sen Monorom) is located in at Koh Nhek District. to the few visiting tourists. It's certainly not the norm at destinations around Cambodia, but here it seems to work out okay. Oeun Sakona Hotel & Restaurant (tel. The guy at the town tourist office, if you can ever find him there and he's not sleeping can also set the tour up for you.

The Kampot province is probably one of the most popular tourist destinations in Cambodia. The sanctuary is one of the main wild life reserves in the province and is home to wide species of local birds and animals. It would also be best to bring a Khmer speaker along, as the trail intersects sometimes with other trails and you will want to clarify that you took the proper way when you do come across somebody. Mondulkiri province is situated on the southeast plateau that ranging in altitude from around 200 to 1000 meters. The matter has been delayed day after day and he then told me to go and claim land elsewhere. Situated past the Sen Monorom airstrip, it is oriented more towards the NGO crowd than independent travelers and backpackers. They can see the local huts and houses which are wonderfully designed. Anyhow there are more restaurants opening during the last 2 years, which serve mostly Khmer or Vietnamese food. At its base, there is a big water reservoir in which tourists can swim. The riverside is the leisure place for the local people of Koh Nhek District. Just follow the signs or ask a motorbike driver to take yu and you will find us. Trekking tours are also undertaken. The province has 4 districts and 1 municipality: From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, "General Population Census of the Kingdom of Cambodia 2019", https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mondulkiri_province&oldid=8303150, Pages with non-numeric formatnum arguments, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. As they mostly overload the pick up's, make sure you'll have a seat inside or you'll have to join the windy and quite incomfortable loading area. Ean further stated that the Bunong people claimed that recently Monty had his subordinate officials falsify documents and provide thumbprints for the sale of some villagers land to businessman Srey Chanthou, who holds the honorific Oknha, while threatening other villagers that they would force the sale of their land as well so that rich people can turn it into pine tree plantations. But he takes a cut. It is one of the highest flowing-down waterfalls in the Mondulkiri province. Sen Monorom to Banlung, Rattanakiri: If you want to go by motorcycle from Sen Monorom to Banlung, Rattanakiri, and it is rainy season, read the section entitled The Death Highway or follow this simple advice: don't do it. The road from Snoul to Sen Monorom, Mondulkiri, is a decent, level dirt variety that you can make fairly good time on. Around the waterfall, most of the residents do farming. There are single day tours as well as half day tours. The lodge is for people who like to explore for themselves. Chom Nor Mondulkiri restaurant is the biggest in town and serving Asian and European foods. All structured data from the main, Property, Lexeme, and EntitySchema namespaces is available under the. I'm the honored owner of. They found that the indigenous land there was being encroached upon by wealthy and powerful people who were having fences built around it and were purporting to have titles of possession to it. Snoul to Mondulkiri is about 130 km, and if you are coming from Kratie the entire trip is about 215 kilometers. These incldue Keo Seima Wildlife Sanctuary, Phnom Prich Wildlife Sanctuary, and Srepok Wildlife Sanctuary. You will need to temporarily disable your Ad-blocker to view this page. Its main point of interest is a place of worship on the mountaintop where residents and tourists always visit to pray for happiness and prosperity. You'll find noodle, dessert and fruit stalls at the front end of the market and the moneychangers are in front as well. Kratie to Mondulkiri: If you are coming on the bomb-cratered highway from Kratie, go straight when you get into Snoul town, and when you come to the crossing of the road, which leads to Kampong Cham, there is another one (laterite surface) to Mondulkiri you have to take. It takes about 7 to 8 hours to drive in the rainy season. O'RAING DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION, Phnom Penh Post - Mondulkiri officials under scrutiny over land, Mondulkiri officials under scrutiny over land. I would like [Sar Kheng] to investigate this case thoroughly to ensure transparency and justice for all parties including the indigenous people and to punish any officials who have committed wrongdoing in order to protect the reputation and legitimacy of the government, the letter concluded. ORaing governor Seak Mony said on January 24 that he had been working to solve the land issues in the district but everything has been put on hold because the forestry crime investigation team from the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries had recently inspected the area and reclaimed some of the land there. Beautiful scenes, amazing people and views, peaceful and relaxing environments. All Rights Reserved.

The ride passes by some beautiful and diverse countryside, regardless of which direction you are coming from. I wont agree to this and I wont give up my land. Don't do it alone. During the Khmer Rouge Regime those objects were buried and hidden. Provinces of Cambodia /. Trekking tours are also undertaken to Taing Laing Waterfall. Text Sources: New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Times of London, Lonely Planet Guides, Library of Congress, CIA World Factbook, Comptons Encyclopedia, The Guardian, National Geographic, Smithsonian magazine, The New Yorker, Time, Newsweek, Reuters, AP, AFP, Wall Street Journal, The Atlantic Monthly, The Economist, Global Viewpoint (Christian Science Monitor), Foreign Policy, Wikipedia, BBC, CNN, Fox News and various websites, books and other publications identified in the text. During the dry season, it is seven to nine meters high and 4-5 meters wide . % How do I go and claim land in another place when all of the land is owned? (Tel: (012) 944 647, (012) 823 054) is a nice guesthouse with a lot of bungalows. For large families there is one room containing four beds. The rule change is effective from the onset of, The US government will hand over 30 more Cambodian artefacts confiscated from private collections and museums in the US to Cambodias representatives in New York in early August. The second stage of the waterfall is 15 to 20 meters high in the rainy season, and 20 meters wide and 18-meter to 25- meters high in dry season. The local people usually meet each other at Sen Monorum waterfall during the holidays and national festivals because it is close to the provincial town. the steamed fish looked particularly good, but the preparation of the food takes quite a time. The trip will take about two days during the dry season and Kaoh Nhek town (near halfway) is the only place that sells bottled water and some food. Ministry of Environment spokesman Neth Pheaktra, citing park rangers, told, Swire Coca-Cola Ltd, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Hong Kong-listed Swire Pacific Ltd, is expanding its business in Southeast Asia by acquiring Coca-Colas bottling business in Cambodia and Vietnam. You might ask them to combine something for a more European style. Even in the dry season, it's a tough trail that will put your riding skills to the test. Air-conditioning is available in 16 of the rooms, the rest are provided with fans. The trip is one of the nicest you can make by motorbike in the whole country, but you need to do it during the dry season as the road can get one of the worse during the rainy season. To get there, just head north from Sen Monorom. Would you like to suggest this photo as the cover photo for this article? There are various ways to go to Pahlung Village. There are also provisions for camping in the place. cambodia displaced bunong 1970s Travelers who visit the village have a feel of the diverse culture of the rural areas in Mondulkiri. 2,530 km (1,572 mi) Laos 555 km (345 mi) Thailand 817 km (508 mi) Vietnam 1,158 km (720 mi), Kingdom of Cambodia (Khmer) Preh Rachanachkr Kmpcha. If you go by moto-taxi, the driver can help with the translation of arranging the tour. You can take a half- or full day trip in the surrounding area. The dishes are real good and quite reasonable. Mr Vibol speaks fine English. Please click the "Downloads" icon in the Safari toolbar, open the first download in the list. The province of Kampot is located in South Africa. Prices for breakfast are approximately $3 and lunch and dinner start at $3 up to $10. Travelers can undertake an elephant trekking trip to the village. But if they are acting out of selfish interest, then those who will suffer are the small and weak people who have no connections to power and cant rely on the local authorities favouritism, Eans letter reads. Sen Monorum waterfall has three stages: The first stage has a slow speed, and is one meter high. <> You can leave then, while they go to the market to buy the ingredients and return to the restaurant to prepare the dishes. cambodia mondulkiri province map svg locator file commons wonder kingdom templenews wikimedia ratanakiri The two small lakes in town are good spots for hanging out and watching the local's fish and swim. (Tel: (012) 932 102, (012) 316 108) is the oldest accommodation place in Sen Monorom and for the budget traveler it remains the best choice. Security is not a problem these days. Some of the indigenous people already possessed titles to the land in question that were recognised by the local authorities in the past but now the district authorities were claiming that those documents were invalid. The road curves to the right and left, and you go to the right to reach Mondulkiri. Travelers can also camp in the sanctuary or stay in small cottages. It offers 47 rooms with hot water along with 12 air-conditioned rooms at $20 while the remaining rooms are provided with fans for $12. During the rainy season, the waterfall is 22-25 meters in height and 7-10 meters in diameter. The room rates are from US$8-30, depending on what you want to be included and for how much people. Tourists at Bou Sra Waterfall, Mondulkiri, Cambodia.jpg, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mondulkiri_Province&oldid=863358968, located in the administrative territorial entity, http://www.stat.go.jp/english/info/meetings/cambodia/pdf/pre_rep1.pdf, contains administrative territorial entity, https://web.archive.org/web/20010208080459/http://www.itl.nist.gov:80/fipspubs/fip10-4.htm, https://www.inaturalist.org/places/inaturalist-places.csv.zip, https://www.wikidata.org/w/index.php?title=Q652830&oldid=1667243152, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. It's best to have some help if you have a bike breakdown or a mishap. It's right next to the centres round about (two buffalos). Cambodia has 176 districts (srok / Khan), 27 elevations (krong), and is organized by province or municipality. 855 (0) 12 777 057, 11/12 22 99 82). During the rainy season, the waterfall is 8 meters in height and 39 meters in diameter. It is in a scenic and pristine setting and offers great photo ops. Lots of Vietnamese products are sold here. Phnom Nam Lear Sanctury (80 kilometers from Sen Monorom) is a natures and wildlife preserve in the Pichinda District on the border of Dalak Provincein Vietnam. <> Mondulkiri province has a climate like the other areas in the country. (Tel: (012) 856667) is a big guesthouse about 1.5 kilometers far from the center on the main road, which goes to Snoul. About 7 kilometers down you will come to a four-way junction where you turn left for the ride to Mondulkiri. Food and fuel can be purchased in Snoul town. The, The National Bank of Cambodia (NBC) has encouraged financial institutions in the Kingdom to promote green finance within the industry, in a move to reaffirm the countrys commitment of carbon neutrality by 2050. The hotels restaurant, located along the river, is open for breakfast, lunch and dinner. Hab Touch, spokesman for the Ministry of Culture and Fine Arts, told The Post on July 19 that, Prime Minister Hun Sen requested that Thailands Krirk University meet with the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport to discuss recruitment after the school announced scholarships for 40 Cambodians. The third stage is one- kilometer from the second stage.

Sen Monorum Waterfall (5 kilometers from Sen Monorom) is located in Sen Monorum District near plantations for rubber, coffee and cashew as well. Getting to requires a ride on a very rough road. Questions or comments, e-mail ajhays98@yahoo.com. If you're using HTTPS Everywhere or you're unable to access any article on Wikiwand, please consider switching to HTTPS (https://www.wikiwand.com). The village has many traditional houses constructed using old-style methods. They double as community entertainment centers; local residents gather outside to gaze at videos on the TV screens inside. Actually, we are compromising on that point but until now in all those areas the agriculture ministry is reclaiming almost everything at this point. This browser is not supported by Wikiwand :( Wikiwand requires a browser with modern capabilities in order to provide you with the best reading experience.Please download and use one of the following browsers: An extension you use may be preventing Wikiwand articles from loading properly. According to to the 2007 census there are only 44,913 people (22,890 male and 22,023 female) living in Mondulkiri Province. He said he went to ask the district authorities to intervene to return the land back in 2019, but to no avail and with the matter just being repeatedly delayed to this day. Travelers can also camp near the waterfall.There are plenty of travel agencies which organize tours to Taing Laing. The governor added that Chanthou had negotiated and redressed the villagers grievances many times in order to be able to pursue his investment there, but they continued to cause him problems and whenever they have problems the locals do not bother talking to the district officials but go straight to people above them for intervention. Tboung Khmum, a province separated from Kampong Cham province, is the newest province. The total area of Mondulkiri is about 14,288 square kilometers. Travelers can get useful information on the Memang Gold Mines Area from the local tourist office or various travel agents. how many municipalities are there in cambodia? It's located east from the market next to the street leading to the centre. This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been authorized by the copyright owner. MONDULKIRI PROVINCE in eastern Cambodia is the most sparsely populated province in the whole country even though it also the largest province in Cambodia. Beside a bunch of smaller rivers, which grow quite big during the rainy season, there are two bigger rivers crossing the province (the Preaek Chhbaar and the Preaek Te River ). At the waterfall, there is a large space of resting and enjoying. He also urged the Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre (ADPC) to increase its projects in Cambodia. Kraol Mountain is covered by forest provides plenty of opportunities for picnicking and hiking. endobj At that time, Nepal had 75 districts. There are more than 135 families living in the Phnom Kraol area, This resort is managed by the Inter-commune Commission for Managing the Phnom Kraol Cultural Resort. Travelers can also buy local artifacts and handicrafts from the village and taste local food. If you are the copyright owner and would like this content removed from factsanddetails.com, please contact me. There are two digits in parentheses for each province and two digits for each district representing that province in each district. English speaking staff is available. By pick up: This is definitely the easiest and fastest method to go to Mondulkiri. The small village is full of scenic spots. There are provisions for camping in the village. She is a cook and cooks on request. The province is bordered by Vietnam to the east and south, Ratanakiri Province to the north, and Kratie province to the West. The room rates are around US$8-10. It is clear that the authorities know which land is legal and which land belongs to the state. Temperatures then range from 20 degrees to 30 degrees Mondulkiri's average temperature throughout the year is definitely lower than in other areas of Cambodia. The riverside has red and golden colored sand, and stretches along the Sre Pork River mixing with many small islands. For faster navigation, this Iframe is preloading the Wikiwand page for, Note: preferences and languages are saved separately in https mode. The Pou Lung villagers are predominantly indigenous groups such as Phnong, Krueng, and Stieng. They change dollars, riel and Vietnamese currency. Nearby is the ethnic Phnong village called Pichinda which has a small guesthouse. The rainy season runs from June to October and features temperature above 25 degrees C. The cool season is from November to February, with temperatures above 20 degrees C. The hot season is from March to May. It has a small restaurant offering a limited menu. (Tel: (012) 936606) is also next to the street leading to the centre, but a bit further away. This is where the monks of Sen Monorom teach. Kingdom consists of a capital city, 24 provinces, 159 districts, 26 municipalities, 1406 communes, and 227 sangkats as of today. Other services include laundry, tourist information, tour guides, motorbike rentals and bus tickets. The room rates vary so come and have a look yourself. stream This stage can not be reached because it is located in the thick forest. The village is on the route to the Bousra Waterfalls. The province is chock full of natural beauty, with thickly forested mountains, powerful waterfalls and the lush green rolling hills of the western side. The wooden house next to a tiny creek is owned by a German woman named Tanja. Mostly there are only small buses during the dry season, as the road gets slippery and impassable for buses. Jump in yourself if the heat of the day is too much. Now were left wondering how can we solve this? he said. There are 4 single rooms, all with fans, that cost $5.50. A variety of languages is used in Mondulkiri Province: Khmer, hill tribe languages, Vietnamese and Lao. When you get to the fork in the road, go right. Orm Bunthoeurn | Publication date 24 January 2022 | 21:47 ICT. During the dry season, the waterfall is 10 meters in height and 20 meters in diameter. xMo7+xb9?A{H!AUe}+eJ\Ek4}vv822s5qlHS"j&A The forests which surround the village are also home to different varieties of flora and fauna. There is also a small pool underneath the waterfall where travelers can swim. The third stage of the waterfall has stronger flow than the second stage. In this website we cover everything related to traveling in Cambodia from guides to recommended places and sites. The capital city is Senmonorom. People in the small houses on the right can fetch the elephant guy for you. You can help our automatic cover photo selection by reporting an unsuitable photo. Travelers can also hire shuttle cars and taxis which ply between the waterfall and the town center. The second stage of waterfall is 150 meters away from the first stage. Various tours are undertaken to Phnom Nam Lear Sanctuary. The acquisition is Swire Coca-Colas first investments in the region which will give the company, Inbound travellers to Cambodia who have not received a primary course of Covid-19 vaccines will no longer be required to quarantine if a rapid test administered upon arrival comes back negative, according to the health minister. We have already met and negotiated on this matter twice. There are also many big trees providing cool shade for them. There are times when multiple districts are formed in one district. The food prices differ from approximately $2.50 in the morning to $4 for lunch and dinner. At its base, there is a big water reservoir in which tourists can swim. The route to the waterfall is full of idyllic tracks and small cliffs. (,ZFN)NHiy8a'I@5I"44 {gh/i{n/X+{L,ZG6~@q}5|`-+EieMgW?mU6]m;w[ *[AoDY2]%M]m|P[7u`_)W)M2sqWsMk[)>S?i6%~5?Wg_kC%_+KifE}CUq>Lrt#+?.endstream A world citizen since 2011. The sanctuary is full of beautiful cliffs, small waterfalls, streams and sprawling greenery.

During the rainy season, the second stage of the waterfall has strong speed, and is six to seven meters high. QyT1z6r.Yz|A~>6yl3:b+(%mGteo)B0p%s'E:2IqWUZ?5FE-s;%oZ>`U)q:U qQ-sDIfm64z1r5Q{V}kIfr6sfckNXTI >!=ry

Different agencies report different districts based on the date of their data reference. stream He continued that after receiving the information from the Bunong people, he had sent a team of lawyers to the district to confirm their account. Youll have another opportunity to gas up or to buy some food on the half way from Snoul to Sen Monorom as there is a bigger village right before you enter the densely wooded area. Nepal now has 77 districts. Some snacks are available at the falls, but bring food if you would like something more substantial. Nepal was divided into 7 provinces on 20th September 2015 according to the schedule 4 of the Constitution of Nepal. Holiday Guesthouse. There are no regular commercial flights to Sen Monorom. This works out to 3.14 inhabitants per square kilometer. Other services include laundry, car rental and internet. The production of the provinces famous rice wine is a source of income. Phnom Kraol Cultural Resort (111 kilometers from Sen Monorom) is located in Orayes Village, Sr Sangkom Commune, Koh Nhk District; 3 kilometers away from the town of Koh Nhk District. It has several protected areas. There are travel agencies which organize such tours. This page was last edited on 26 June 2022, at 15:33. Mondulkiri Hotel & Restaurant is the biggest hotel in town (tel. Lak Pok Bras Waterfall (13 kilometers from Sen Monorom) is located in Romanea Commune, Sen Monorom District. The sanctuary is home to some endangered species and wide varieties of mammals, birds and reptiles. During the dry season, the waterfall is 28 meters in height and 8 meters in diameter. endobj At the waterfall, there are many big trees. Fuel is also available.

The hotel also offers discounts to groups that occupy 10 or more rooms. Some bird species include sarus, crane and giant ibises. Due to outsiders moving in prices doubled from 2006 to 2007. We agreed to make actual measurements at the relevant places but when the time came we set up a commission to go do it and they didnt show up. It's an all-purpose market, but it doesn't have the feel of the typical Cambodian market, which is probably again due to the closeness of Vietnam and the hill tribe people who come here.

Figure around US$ 15 for a half day or US $ 30 for a full-day tour. And with the locals usually eating at home, the restaurants don't stock much food. By bus: Coming from Phnom Penh it will at least take a whole day to manage the trip to Sen Monorom, Mondulkiri.

Despite growing deforestation and the search for valuable minerals, Mondulkiri has still has some of the largest forests in Cambodia. The journey is very pleasant as the route goes through winding routes and idyllic forests.

8 0 obj Sub-Collectors and taluks/mandals are divisions of Revenue Divisions, which are headed by taluks/mandals, and taluks/mandals are composed of ten or more villages administered by village revenue officers and village servants.