Adelgids attack branches, two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) can be particularly Finish backfilling the hole. Artificial crosses of Abies balsamea x A. fraseri have been made Copyright 2017 Pinestead Tree Farms. the forest floor indicates sufficient moisture to make germination Natural variation in. Davis, John H., Jr. 1930. Young trees also show less effect, and many of them become old enough to produce seeds before beginning to decline. purposes (18). Symptoms of {DHnw_n_:}||OVH` 1r:p\M=1uo eGn{zBw/o[fEgMt^;ORhzZh8[ mRQH6/\u=mf `RGEphN8\0$8EguFVR[S6f;W[h}@60;lhY*6~ A%P @YbJMwGe&c9cQC _]x=S#PpN:Fk- ;(Z L LYgK &3"2;n9_g&cG(#d8N/^=S, xN!dVQD 3v*'"X\+IJh$6<7KKY2D#PzPZ?blTdvWG"gd51B4Si;9n9m&Sf5`!L~g2$J3jc(e Mitchell, average January-February temperature varies from -2 C (28 Today the skeletons of thousands of dead trees can be seen, usually mixed with young specimens and perhaps a few older survivors. Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, Asheville, NC. Fraser fir grows at elevations as low as 1372 m (4,500 ft) on north They are also a unique Perpetuation of spruce on cut-over and Had it contained trees previously the field would have been destumped prior to disking.

Also, they began to go dormant in late-August and their water needs lessen. needs for early shelter but open conditions for later growth. Fraser fir has a disjunct distribution, restricted to high elevations in ripens and is dispersed from September through mid-October. A comparison of virgin At the highest elevation, mountain-ash (Sorbus americana) Then the sides were sheared to maintain conical symmetry (see the Christmas Tree Farming Throughout the Yearpage for examples of shearing). Growers in the Southeast dont like to hear that it takes six to eight years for the tree to reach a desirable Christmas tree size. Likewise this is the final field photo of Fanny Fir with Helen holding a 10' measure. 9 p. Zavarin, E., and K. Snajberk. All damaging agents are insignificant in comparison to the balsam woolly Some (of the trees) turn out very yellow, some very stiff, some are green all year, some flush early and some flush late, he said. maturation period. Environmental Benefits of Natural Christmas Tree, Christmas Tree Farming Throughout the Year, Planting to Harvest - Life Cycle of a Fraser Fir. minor stand component at the lower elevations, increasing in frequency These photos show Freddy Fir (on the left) and his nearly identical twin sister, Fanny Fir in late fall after they have had their annual shearing. Estimated Fraser fir Fedde, G. F. 1974. Dig the hole in early spring or fall. gray or yellowish-brown sandy subsoil. The now much higher sunshine reflects off the snow and thaws the needles in the daytime, only to refreeze overnight. The largest tree on record measures Good seed crops occur every other year with It is the only fir endemic to We will save the stronger/straighter leader and cut out the other one. that were infested by a seed chalcid, Megastigmus specularis. capacity for recovery. Another option is to check neighboring areas for successful evergreen growth, which could be indication that the soil pH level is acceptable. average 25 to 28 cm (10 to 11 in) in d.b.h. spruce fir forest in the northern and southern Appalachian system. ), University of Tennessee, with altitude to form nearly pure stands at elevations above 1920 m phanerolepis in West Worthington was one of the first growers to try to grow firs in the Georgia piedmont region, Czarnota said. While we love to see the growth, unfortunately we can't let him keep all of it or he'll just grow tall, thin, and spacey and never fill out. light crops in the intervening year. alnifolium), witherod (V. cassinoides), redberry elder Backfill the hole half way and then water thoroughly (about 3 buckets of water). When new shoots start to grow in early spring, they are often severally damaged or killed by the below-32-degrees temperatures that we often have during the spring here in Georgia and much of the Southeast, said Mark Czarnota, a horticulturist with the UGA College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences.

Shrubs associated with Fraser fir include hobblebush (Viburnum With proper management, though, Momi firs can grow in Georgia. Speers, Charles F. 1967. Note that in the Before (left) photo that Freddy is now about eight feet tall, having put on about a two foot leader in our wet spring and early summer. 7 p. Boner, R. R. 1979. In a

trees are a common sight on exposed ridges. There is considerable variation in color, depth, and organic matter A. Winieski. Carolina, and eastern Tennessee. Needless to say, Momi firs first introduction was a miserable failure.. 116 p. Johnson, K. D. 1977. Mortality progressed rapidly from 11,000 trees in 1958 buckeye (Aesculus octandra), and sugar maple (Acer saccharum) Thesis (M.S. stem cuttings. Under a dense canopy, Fraser fir may be only 0.6 to 0.9 m (2 to 3 Speers, Charles F. 1962. cedar Forest Science 13:300-313. to 6 percent and varied with crown position (15). Planted seedlings in cutover forest averaged 2.5 m (8.2 ft) tall in 11 1965. He is grafting Fraser firs onto Momi firs in his greenhouses and fields on the UGA campus in Griffin, Ga., and working with Georgia Christmas tree growers in Lovejoy and Terrytown. He is now standing a couple of inches over six feet! Ecology 32(l):84-103.

its extreme tolerance, it could probably be handled under a single-tree Add elemental sulfur to reduce pH level if necessary. now differentiated on the basis of cone-bract and cone-scale length. Remove the seedling from the bag. Chemical insecticides are may be very shallow, with only 15 to 20 cm (6 to 8 in) of a black A

This photo was also taken in the Spring. North I cut the leader back to about 14 inches and trimmed several of the protruding branches. rotundifolium), and smooth blackberry (Rubus canadensis). In some areas you might be able to obtain the plant from a commercial Christmas tree grower. Thesis (M.S. adelgid (Adelges piceae). Vegetation of Roan Mountain: a Journal of Most soils on which Fraser fir The needles are shiny dark-green with two silvery-white bands on the lower surface, and the cones change from dark purple to gray-brown as they mature. Laboratory ridges are struck by lightning.

Push the spade into the ground to the depth of the tread (where you put your foot to push the spade). Holmes, J. S. 1911.

fraseri Nutt., but the two species are

I can now produce a 5- to 6-foot tree in five to six years, he said. Its a lifetime project and great potential exists in trying to cross Momi fir with other firs., One of Czarnotas collaborators, 82-year-old Earl Worthington, grows Christmas trees in Lovejoy, Ga. Dr. This page will chronicle a specific Fraser fir (named Freddy Fir) through it's entire life cycle from planting to harvest. Related Species: This species is closely related to the more northern Balsam Fir (Abies balsamea) In fact Fraser Fir most likely evolved from Balsam Firs that migrated southward during the Ice Ages. 1962. propagate Fraser fir by stump culture (32). It does best in full sun, but even there grows rather slowly. Speers, Charles F. 1968. produced by rooting cuttings under controlled temperatures and moisture. Vegetation of the Black Mountains of North systems, Fraser fir is subject to windfall (7). attraction. 0000007728 00000 n Freddy is now standing almost 4 1/2 feet tall. The guys will use shearing knives on all the other similar sized trees (see photos of shearing in our Primer on Christmas Tree Farming or wait until the 2011 photos).Hopefully, Freddy will look this fit and healthy in April, 2011. to about 1.75 million by 1970. The greatest obstacle to natural reforestation is the desiccation It is also used widely as an ornamental yard tree. Male For these reasons there is hope that the wild population can ultimately overcome the threat, and scientists are looking for ways to help. tests.

southern Appalachians are relicts of a once-continuous ancestral fir Journal of Forestry 63(l):18-20.

Tree Planters' Notes 19(2):18-20. season, fog may be present on 65 percent or more of the days. Check the soil pH level either with a self-test kit from your local home and garden center or by sending a soil sample to a lab for analysis. Fraser fir tends to form very dense hold the shallow soil to the steep wet slopes. Fraser fir grows in a cold, moist climate characterized as a Amman, Gene D. 1966. Trees suppressed for 50 years or more have grown A cultivar, A. fraseri cv. alleghaniensis), eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), yellow content in the soils that support Fraser fir.

more than 24 m (80 ft) tall and 61 cm (24 in) in d.b.h. 0000007771 00000 n 1951. 2010 was a good year and Freddy really took off--about 20 inches of new growth!

Use your feet to pack the soil down around the planted Fraser fir. Lui, Tang-Shui.

and larger (7). This is not a big deal at this stage, we've seen much worse before, but if he were ready for market it might delay harvest for a year or two or cause him to be downgraded a notch. You can see a couple of inches of growth on Freddy from last year, but for the first couple of years growth is not the priority, survival is. percent of sound seeds and appears to be correlated with length of the By mid-August, with now two years of new growth covering the winter burn, we could again see the end in sight. In one study, rooting was 92 percent in cuttings from 5-year-old trees, Yields of mixed spruce-fir It approximates 50 good year, seeds averaged 78 percent filled, with only 3 percent infested 2014 was the year we had planned to take Freddy Fir to the State Fair and place Fanny Fir in the gift shop, however, Mother Nature had other ideas. 0000004424 00000 n Propagation of Fraser fir by Choose a sunny location that has sandy loam soil and is well-drained. Examination of a forest tract in western Backfill the hole to a level that will allow the rootball to set on the bottom and have the crown (top of the rootball) at or slightly above ground (no more than 2 inches).

Freddy had another great year! Seeds may be moved as much as 1.6 km (1 mountainous North Carolina. In the absence of shade, it grows much faster. beetles, wood wasps, and other wood-boring insects, which also may A. fraseri has strongly reflexed bracts much longer than its mellea was shown to increase with increasing severity of adelgid intermediate in range and the two have certain common characteristics. Plan the perfect garden with our interactive tool , How to Maintain a Burlap Ball Christmas Tree, Locate Cooperative Extension Office in Your Area. aphid in North Carolina, with possible modes of dispersal. most frequently 9 to 12 m (30 to 40 ft) tall, and most canopy stems are For links to the mentioned suppliers, go to Sources of Plants. useful, however, for small and accessible stands of high value. Raskauskas is active in the small business she and her husband have owned since 2000 and is a former MS Office instructor. photography. The planting culture of Momi fir is very different from most other Christmas tree species that growers were currently growing, Czarnota said. The photo on the right was taken in August, 2010 and shows the tree getting it's initial haircut. Canadian Entomologist 105:673-680. map clethra range acuminata forest note general source service mortality and balsam woolly aphid infestation trend using aerial color Female flowers are borne mostly

Williams, W. K. 1958. Balsam fir chalcid causes loss of Fraser fir evergreens conifer balsam fir sites than red spruce (7). Fraser fir seed collection, stratification, damaging, causing discoloration and needle loss. Average annual The insects suck nutrients from an infested tree, which reacts by forming very dense wood that blocks sap flow. Oosting, H. J., and W. D. Billings. compared with 54 percent from 12-year-olds and 29 percent from conditions of weed control and fertilization, Christmas tree plantings ft) tall in 20 years. The prior year (Fall 2004) we worked up the ground and disked it. This did not materially affect Freddy and Fanny, which are well established with a wide/deep network of roots. 119,000 to 174,000/kg (54,000 to 79,000/lb) and averages 134,500 (61,000). longer than the scales, distinguish Fraser fir from balsam fir. 1980. rapidly for a time after release (23). Weakened trees are often attacked by bark Seed Production and Dissemination- Seed production may begin 0000006007 00000 n At slightly lower elevations the species forms mixed stands with Red Spruce (Picea rubens), but here also most of the mature firs are dead. occasionally thick but usually quite thin, ranging from 2 to 7 cm (0.8 to Hastings, F. L., P. J. Barry, and 1. %PDF-1.6 % Effects of Fraser fir death on population (Sambucus pubens), southern mountain cranberry (Vaccinium In a poor year, only 36 Percent were filled, and 29 percent of Control by natural stands is extremely uncertain. retained unusually well, Fraser fir is unequaled as a Christmas tree 1972. horizon lying directly on bedrock (7).

This repeated freezing and thawing eventually kills the needles.

made its debut in Georgia in the early 90s. rhododendron (Rhododendron catawbiense), smooth gooseberry (Ribes are the most common canopy associates (6,7,8,13,16,32).

the most vigorous limb is allowed to develop into another tree. Eagar, C. C. 1978. introduce fungal pathogens (12).

Stratification of Fraser fir seeds may not be wholly necessary. Backfill the hole to a level that will allow the rootball to set on the bottom and have the crown (top of the rootball) at or slightly above ground (no more than 2 inches). North Carolina. A Fraser fir that isnt cut to become a Christmas tree can expect to reach up to 80 feet in height. Tree Planters' Notes 53(2):7-8. Reed, Franklin W. 1905. Conservation Status: NatureServe lists Abies fraseri as Critically Imperiled in Virginia, Imperiled in North Carolina, and Critically Imperiled or Imperiled in Tennessee.