No. This mesa falls away sharply on the north, west, and east sides, but three natural terraces on the south side provide a route up to the top. [72] In the 2nd century BC, Eumenes II (probably) built a temple for Dionysus at the northern end of the theatre terrace. "The Idea of the Library as a Classical Model for European Culture,". Pergamon, Mysia, circa 450 BC. A marble stage building was only built in the 1st century BC. A large gymnasium area was built in the 2nd century BC on the south side of the Acropolis. In 1971, after a short pause, Wolfgang Radt succeeded him as leader of excavations and directed the focus of research on the residential buildings of Pergamon, but also on technical issues, like the water management system of the city which supported a population of 200,000 at its height. At this time Pergamon was in the possession of the family of Gongylos from Eretria, a Greek favourable to the Achaemenid Empire who had taken refuge in Asia Minor and obtained the territory of Pergamon from Xerxes I, and Xenophon was hosted by his widow Hellas.[9]. For the construction of the road from Pergamon to Dikili for which he had undertaken planning work and topographical studies, he returned in 1869 and began to focus intensively on the legacy of the city. Because of the growth of the city, the streets were expanded and the city was monumentalised. The nearly 200 metre wide Pergamon Bridge under the forecourt of the Red Basilica in the centre of Bergama is the largest bridge substruction from antiquity.[62]. Thus, on the one hand, Eurypylus who must have been part of the dynastic line as a result of the appropriation of the myth, was not mentioned in the hymn sung in honour of Telephus in the Asclepieion. In the east part of the terrace there was a small prostyle temple in the Corinthian order. About 9.5 metres in front of the east-facing building, there was an altar, which was 7 metres long and 2.3 metres wide. They remodeled the Acropolis of Pergamon after the Acropolis in Athens. For the altar's construction, the required flat area was skillfully created through terracing, in order to allow it to be oriented in relation to the neighbouring Temple of Athena. The sanctuary was old; its activity can be traced back to the fourth century BC. The side facing the Cetius river is a sharp cliff, while the side facing the Selinus is a little rough. [66] Many scholars believe that the "seat of Satan" refers to the Pergamon Altar, due to its resemblance to a gigantic throne. His successors had sculptures made showing him older and more mature. He comes there following an oracle in search of his mother, and becomes Teuthras' son-in-law or foster-son and inherits his kingdom of Teuthrania, which encompassed the area between Pergamon and the mouth of the Caicus. The marble temple sits on a podium, 4.5 metres above the level of the theatre terrace and was an Ionic prostyle temple. The two terraces were linked by a staircase of eleven steps around 7.5 metres wide, descending from the front of the temple. [45] A new street network was created and a new city wall with a monumental gatehouse south of the Acropolis called the Gate of Eumenes. [2] Pergamon was the northernmost of the seven churches of Asia cited in the New Testament Book of Revelation.[3]. This title began appearing on Pergamese coins during the Roman Imperial period. It is known as the Lower Gymnasium and has been identified as the boys' gymnasium. The most famous structure from the city is the monumental altar, which was probably dedicated to Zeus and Athena. It is located 26 kilometres (16mi) from the modern coastline of the Aegean Sea on a promontory on the north side of the river Caicus (modern-day Bakray) and northwest of the modern city of Bergama, Turkey. This pool was 35 metres higher than the summit of the citadel. In the middle of the 2nd century, Pergamon was one of the largest cities in the province, along with these two, and had around 200,000 inhabitants. The wall, with numerous gates, now surrounded the entire hill, not just the upper city and the flat area to the southwest, all the way to the Selinus river. a circular treatment center (sometimes known as the Temple of Telesphorus), the Via Tecta (or the Sacred Way, which is a colonnaded street leading to the sanctuary) and, Aristocles (1st century AD), a Greek sophist. Under Augustus, the first imperial cult, a neocorate, to be established in the province of Asia was in Pergamon. Problem I: the Kingdom of Pergamon can only spawn via an unreliable event and is always AI-controlled (unless a player tag-switches via console command).

Ancient Greek and Roman city in modern-day Turkey and UNESCO World Heritage Site. [6] Earlier habitation in the Bronze Age cannot be demonstrated, although Bronze Age stone tools are found in the surrounding area. [81] A roofed stadium, known as the Basement Stadium is located between the middle terrace and the upper terrace. islands of Euboea and AgiosEfstratios, Greece. [30], However, for the Attalids, it was apparently the genealogical connection to Heracles that was crucial, since all the other Hellenistic dynasties had long established such links:[31] the Ptolemies derived themselves directly from Heracles,[32] the Antigonids inserted Heracles into their family tree in the reign of Philip V at the end of the 3rd century BC at the latest,[33] and the Seleucids claimed descent from Apollo. An angry mob is said to have burned Saint Antipas alive in front of the Temple inside a brazen bull-like incense burner, which represented the bull god Apis. This terrace had no space for the circular orchestra, which was normal in a Greek theatre, so only a wooden stage building was built which could be taken down when there was no performance taking place. The work was continued by Conze, who aimed for the most complete possible exposure and investigation of the historic city and citadel that was possible. During the crisis of the Third Century, the economic strength of Pergamon finally collapsed, as the city was badly damaged in an earthquake in 262 and was sacked by the Goths shortly thereafter.

Eumenes II supported the Romans again, against Perseus of Macedon, in the Third Macedonian War, but the Romans did not reward Pergamon for this. Zur Entwicklung des hellenistischen Stadtzentrums von Pergamon. [64][65], In the New Testament Book of Revelation, the faith of the Pergamon believers, who "dwell where Satans throne is" is commended by the author. [5], Settlement of Pergamon can be detected as far back as the Archaic period, thanks to modest archaeological finds, especially fragments of pottery imported from the west, particularly eastern Greece and Corinth, which date to the late 8th century BC. Otherwise he does not seem to have been paid any heed. Pliny the Elder refers to the city as the most important in the province[18] and the local aristocracy continued to reach the highest circles of power in the 1st century AD, like Aulus Julius Quadratus who was consul in 94 and 105. The plan of Pergamon was affected by the extreme steepness of the site. [5] According to the Roman historian Cassius Dio, Augustus had permitted Pergamon to set up a sacred precinct to himself as early as 29 BC [6], and a temple was built for the cult. Lysimachus, King of Thrace, took possession in 301BC, but soon after his lieutenant Philetaerus enlarged the town, the kingdom of Thrace collapsed in 281 BC and Philetaerus became an independent ruler, founding the Attalid dynasty. He also belonged to the broader cycle of myths related to the Trojan War as the grandson of Achilles through his father Neoptolemus and of Eetion of Thebe through his mother Andromache (concubine to Neoptolemus after the death of Hector of Troy). For a period he enjoyed success, defeating and killing the Roman consul P. Licinius Crassus and his army, but he was defeated in 129 BC by the consul M. Perperna. As a result of this short but intensive investigation, two fragments of a great frieze were discovered and transported to Berlin for detailed analysis, where they received some interest, but not a lot. As a result of this, the streets had to turn hairpin corners, so that the hill could be climbed as comfortably and quickly as possible. [10] Only with Alexander the Great was Pergamon and the surrounding area removed from Persian control. [4], The Caicus valley is mostly composed of volcanic rock, particularly andesite and the Pergamon massif is also an intrusive stock of andesite. It was again rebuilt and refortified after the Arabs abandoned their Siege of Constantinople in 717718. However, in the Epic Cycle the Telephos myth is already connected with the area of Mysia. In the courtyards there were often cisterns, which captured rain water from the sloping roofs above. Romans and Greeks equally could take civic pride in their urbanity and sophistication, and at the same moment be a little disgusted by the dirt and tawdriness of the back streets only yards away. The upper city extends for another 250 m to the south, but it remains very narrow, with a width of only 150 m. At its south end the massif falls gradually to the east and south, widening to around 350 m and then descends to the plain towards the southwest. Following the assassination of Caesar in 44 BC, Octavian fought for control of Rome, first against the Republican assassins (particularly Brutus and Cassius), and later Marc Antony and Cleopatra VII of Egypt. As a result of these efforts, Carl Humann, who had been carrying out low-level excavations at Pergamon for the previous few years and had discovered for example the architrave inscription of the Temple of Demeter in 1875, was entrusted with carry out work in the area of the altar of Zeus in 1878, where he continued to work until 1886.

The frieze is 2.30 metres high and has a total length of 113 metres, making it the second longest frieze surviving from antiquity, after the Parthenon Frieze in Athens. He has been given a larger nose (a modern restoration?) On the basis of a rumour that Eumenes had entered into negotiations with Perseus during the war, the Romans attempted to replace Eumenes II with the future Attalus II, but the latter refused. According to Christian tradition, in the year 92 Saint Antipas, the first bishop of Pergamum ordained by John the Apostle, was a victim of an early clash between Serapis worshippers and Christians. Others had wide columned halls in front of main rooms to the north. The Sanctuary of Demeter occupied an area of 50 x 110 metres on the middle level of the south slope of the citadel. This nation is also quite weak, as it appears a decade or so into the game and most of the times is quickly reconquered by Phrygia. It was a north-facing Doric peripteros temple with six columns on the short side and ten on the long side and a cella divided into two rooms. Pergamon was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2014. From the time of Philetairos, at the latest, this kind of courtyard house was common and it was ever more widespread as time went on, but not universal. [70], At Pergamon, Dionysus had the epithet Kathegemon, 'the guide',[71] and was already worshiped in the last third of the 3rd century BC, when the Attalids made him the chief god of their dynasty. At the end of the war, the victorious Romans deprived Pergamon of all its benefits and of its status as a free city. "The Library of Pergamon as a Classical Model," in Helmut Koester, ed., Nagy, Gregory (2007). A 20-metre-wide (66ft) staircase cut into the base on the western side leads up to the upper structure, which is surrounded by a colonnade, and consists of a colonnaded courtyard, separated from the staircase by a colonnade. The construction consisted in total of three levels. He concentrated on further excavation of the upper city, the Asklepieion, and the Red Hall. It consists of a main building and two round towers within an enormous temenos or sacred area. A more conventional depictionof Augstus as a youthful heroin Classical/Hellenistic style.Detail of a full-length statue, perhaps been made inThessaloniki during the reign [38] A proper, multi-page description with plans, elevations, and views of the city and its ruins was first produced by Charles Texier when he published the second volume of his Description de lAsie mineure. Kosmetatou, Elizabeth (2003) "The Attalids of Pergamon," in Andrew Erskine, ed.. Nagy, Gregory (1998). In late antiquity, it experienced a limited economic recovery. In 88 BC, Mithridates VI Eupator made the city the headquarters in his first war against Rome, in which he was defeated.

[67], The well-preserved Theatre of Pergamon[de] dates from the Hellenistic period and had space for around 10,000 people, in 78 rows of seats. In 1871, he organised a small expedition there under the leadership of Ernst Curtius. [88] His martyrdom is one of the first recorded in Christian history, highlighted by the Christian Scripture itself through the message sent to the Pergamon Church in the Book of Revelation. They sent gifts to Greek cultural sites like Delphi, Delos, and Athens. Height 46 cm. As a result, the area has a strongly inland character. In their constructive adaptation of the myth, the Attalids stood within the tradition of the other, older Hellenistic dynasties, who legitimized themselves through divine descent, and sought to increase their own prestige. Pergamus' role remained subordinate, although he did receive some cult worship. When Attalus III died without an heir in 133BC, he bequeathed the whole of Pergamon to Rome. The Library of Pergamon was renowned as second only to the Library of Alexandria.

Pergamon was also a flourishing center for the production of parchment (the word itself, a corruption of pergamenos, meaning "from Pergamon"), which had been used in Asia Minor long before the rise of the city. The lowest and southernmost terrace is small and almost free of buildings. Pergamon was granted the neokoros for the cult of Augustus and Roma, the patron goddess of Rome and personification of the Roman Public and Senate.