Over time, style, structure, and meaning in dance changed through the perception of supernatural revelation, individual or group initiative, and contacts with other people. Some practitioners retain their own identities; others become the spiritand self-identity depends on the spirit that animates the body.

Shaking the hand palm downward discarded the carnal; turning palms upward petitioned eternal life. December 1, 1989 This process occurs through revolving movement and repeated chanting that vibrates energy centers of the body in order to raise the individual to higher spheres.

When men symbolically externalize the vital life forces in dance, they may be asserting their virility and freedom in the presence of the powerful mothers and, in addition, recognizing and honoring their powers in order to appease them to ensure that they utilize their ase for male benefit. Dance as Religious Studies. Faith in the Millennium. https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/dance-dance-and-religion, "Dance: Dance and Religion

Yet Christianity also scorned flesh as a root of evil to be transcended, even mortified. Identifying with the moon, a supreme being believed to be both beneficial and destructive, they adopt stylized signs or moon stances; they also embrace tightly and mimic the act of sexual intercourse. Within the Franciscan view, God is present in good works and in the creative force of the arts. Male Brahmans (members of the priestly class) taught dance to males who performed only as young boys (gotipua s), to males who performed in all-male companies (kathakali), and to women dedicated to serving in the temples (devads s). Possession legitimizes leadership among the Fanti of Ghana. For Buddhist Sherpa lamas, laymen, and young boys in Nepal, dancing is a means by which they resolve the necessity of simultaneously affirming and denying the value of worldly existence.

Chi Wara's public presence is an invocation of his blessings.

A man can have ase most fully when he is spiritually united with an oria. Hindus of India believe that iva danced the world into being and later conveyed the art of dancing to humans. Black slaves in the United States, members of Nigerian Yoruba Assemblies of God, and a number of white Christian groups have all included in their worship what appears to be dancethough under a different name, such as "play," "the shout," or "feeling the Lord.". A popularly held psychological and theological theory found in numerous histories of dance suggests that dance evolved instrumentally to cope with unknown happenings in the human environment. of The Dance of Shiva (New York, 1957). Cambridge, U.K., 1923.

Paris, 1957.

In Christianity the Catholic Church allowed dances created for special occasions, such as the canonization of cardinals or commemoration of their birthdays. Commentary on the secularization of dance, believed by author to be the original art form.

The worshiper takes the initiative and lends his or her body to the tutelary spirit when there is an indication that the spirit wishes to communicate with the living or when the devotee desires a meeting. New York, 1963. Bharata Muni. Supernatural beings are sometimes honored to ensure that they do not mar festivals. In the Bible, Mishnah, and Talmud, dance is referred to in various contexts as an important ritualized activity and as an expressio, POWWOW, a Native American gathering centered around dance. Christianity's love-hate relationship with the body and acceptance of a mind-body dichotomywhich the rationalism of sixteenth-century Europe intensifiedhas led to both positive and negative attitudes toward dance. Bloch, Maurice.

The Mormons believe that, when engaged in by the pure of heart, dance (excluding the embracing-couple position of Western social dance) prepares the individual and community for prayer meetings or other religious activity; devotion and recreation unite the individual with God. The British influence, for example, contributed to the demise of Hindu temple dancing without succeeding in spreading Christianity. Within a Protestant Christian view, artistic self-expression is analogized to the creative self-expression of God as creator. Legends of Salome's sensuous dance, for which she received John the Baptist's head in reward (she either obeyed her revengeful mother in requesting this or expressed her anger about John's not reciprocating her sexual interest in him), have kept alive negative associations with dance. Although both male and female royalty in early India may have been well versed in dancing, the Nya stra is the scripture of a male sage, Bhrata Muni, who upon receiving instruction from the gods later handed it down through his sons. Encyclopedia.com. Thus fear of the supernatural entity's indifference is allayed.

In many parts of the world that have become somewhat modernized and secularized, participants in nonsacred theatrical dance often choose to explain religion, to convey or to challenge its models for social organization and gender roles, to effect change, and to honor the divine by infusing their dances with elements drawn from religions worldwide.

The dancer's circular path and turning movement aid the participants toward enlightenment by providing a means to realize that the deity is a reflection of one's own mind. "Ritual, Performance, and Media in Urban Contemporary Shrine Configurations in Benin City, Nigeria." The dance, metaphorically at least, conducts supernatural beneficence. Dance and Stress: Resistance, Reduction, and Euphoria. Anthropology on the Great Plains. The language of movement is God given, and both the progression of a dancer's training and the perfection of performance reveal God's achievement. In Sri Lanka's Sinhala healing rites, an exorcist attempts to sever the relationship between a patient and malign demons and ghosts. Symbolically spatializing things never seen, the Dogon represent heaven on earth.

Gregory of Nazianzus, bishop of Constantinople, Turkey, thought of dancing at the graves of martyrs as a means to cast out devils and prevent sickness.

During the initiation to an ancestral cult, the Fang of Gabon carry religious statues from their usual places and make them dance like puppets to vitalize them. Because the Angolan Chokwe mask and its wearer are a spiritual whole, both in life and death, when a dancer dies, his mask is buried with him. Not only may individuals be possessed by supernatural entities, they may also experience "essence possession," the fourth type, by an impersonal religious or supernatural potency. Hanna, Judith Lynne. Copyright 2022, Bible Study Tools. Dance may serve as an activating agent for a specific kind of change: giving oneself temporarily to a supernatural being or essence. London, 1998.

Leeuw, Gerardus van der. How Can We Experience Gods Power through Prayer? "The Representation and Reality of Divinity in Dance." Presented by the unmasked, these messages might produce social frictions or hostilities rather than positive change.

Social roles are emphasized when the Yoruba's Gld society masquerade figures appear annually at the start of the new agricultural year to dance in the marketplace and through the streets.

Dance could also trample vices and that which enslaves people and holds them down. Religious Dances in the Christian Church and in Popular Medicine. Twenty-two articles primarily in the area of Western culture.

Part of a convivial attempt to deny the finality of death, dances also had other manifestations and functions. "Dancing the gods" is considered an admirable achievement.

Dance may be used as a medium to reverse a debilitating condition caused by the supernatural or to prepare an individual or group to reach a religiously defined ideal state. The Gift to Be Simple. Based on traditional Yoruba religion in West Africa, the Spiritual Baptist Faith persons possessed by the Holy Spirit retain their own identity, whereas in Orisha Work, those possessed by orias (spirits) become the spirits.

Other victims sought relief from pain through ecstatic dancing, considered to be of curative value and efficacious in warding off death. La danse sacre en Indochine et Indonsie.

Congregational Dancing in Christian Worship. Different from ordinary motor activities, these movements have inherent and "aesthetic" values; that is, they have both appropriateness and competency. "Symbols, Song, Dance, and Features of Articulation: Is Religion an Extreme Form of Traditional Authority?" An analysis of religious practice in Malawi. The ceremonial curing dance may be called for in crisis situations, or the dance may occur spontaneously; it is redressive and prophylactic. Amsterdam, 2000.

A probing of the reasons for this revival within its new context. The Spanish Franciscans used dance dramas, especially those depicting the struggle of the church against its foes, to explain the Christian faith to the illiterate New World Indians they hoped to convert. Tucker, JoAnne, and Susan Freeman.

The masked (antelope headdress) dance of the Bamana of Mali represents Chi Wara, the god of agriculturea supernatural being who is half animal and half manwho first taught people how to cultivate the soil. Berkeley, Calif., 1972. In repentance they turned away from preoccupation with self to shake off their bondage to a troubled past. The sacred and secular, the ritualistic and playful, and the spiritual and sexual do not everywhere have the dichotomous character so common in Muslim societies and in industrial societies, where specialization and separation are hallmarks.

Studies in Latin America and the Caribbean. Thus both living and spiritual entities are believed to watch a dance performance, and both categories of spectators may even join the dancers, the latter often doing so through possession. Their bodies become the demonic spirit's vehicle, constitute evidence of its control, and convince spectators of the need, as the healer prescribes, for a change in social relations that will exorcise the demonic spirit and transform the patient from illness to a state of health. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations.

An account of the principles and many of the rites of an African-based religion. During the first part of the Middle Ages, dancing accompanied Christian church festivals and processionals in which relics of saints or martyrs were carried to call attention to their life histories.

Although both men and women belong to the Gld cult (to seek protection and blessings and assuage their fear of death), only men dance, with masks portraying the appropriate sex roles of each character. Clive, H. P. "The Calvinists and the Question of Dancing in the Sixteenth Century." Afterward, the mother-in-law often reduces her demands. 8 is about dance, verbs that express the act of dancing, and the functions of dance. Danses et lgendes de la Chine ancienne. Waterhouse, David, ed. Rather than considering carnal love a phenomenon to be "overcome," as in some Christian denominations, a strand of Hinduism accepts sexual congress as a phase of the soul's migration. Christianity's rejection of the body reflects an inability to come to terms with the passing of time and with death. Adams, Doug, and Diane Apostolos-Cappadona, eds. 2022 .

Whereas various arts use the body as an accessory to create sounds or visual objects, dance is manifest directly through the body and evokes bodily associations.

Among the Ga of Ghana it is through a medium, whose state of possession is induced by dance, that the god signifies its presence and delivers messages prophesying the coming year's events and suggesting how to cope with them. Even though these dances often had themes and origins comparable to those of European folk dances, colonialists considered indigenous dances to be the manifestation of savage heathenism, and thus antagonistic to the "true faith."