If not, getting something to work on Alpine may just not be worth it Might you have any citation(s) for this? not being able to get into the container does pose a big advantage. To be honest, I rarely use base images myself. As far as I can tell, the recommended way to run several processes in an Ubuntu container is under supervisord. The answer is simple: for performance and security. Sometimes they can contain excess binaries you dont need, and they dont have the ones you do need which can break your runtime dependencies. For example a minicon analysis existing in containers gives some hints, for instance the RUN commands and other commands that will be required, and based on that, hints are able to significantly reduce the image size of the container. java runtimes can expose debugging ports when needed that operate on a custom protocol. Change), You are commenting using your Facebook account. Maybe not as minimal as Alpine, but not heavy either. Even if you are not an internet behemoth like Google or Netflix, and even if you have relatively small applications with much fewer users, the costs accumulate over time. but without tls amazon can "decrypt" your traffic and see whats inside. There's a case for tiny images, but it's in severely-constrained environments. Perhaps in a desktop environment with hundreds or thousands of different programs running, it might make a difference. Do you really need grep, ls, or bash in your production container image? it should probably be called "package-manager-less" because there's no package manager in the final build, but there's also no ls, etc, so distroless kinda makes sense. > Id think that a few megabytes of disk isnt as valuable as the extra cpu cycles. Running snyk container test geo-alpine returns: The distroless Dockerfile acts a bit different than the two above. Why reduce the docker image containers size? - Here's How to Fix Common Issues, #16- The Batman Arkham Games in Chronological Order, #17- What is ERC-3475? Google, which seemed to start this movement, is publishing their own distroless images for Java, Python, Go and C++. That said even. Instead, distroless images are a class of minimal images which contain only your application and the applications runtime dependencies. document.getElementById( "ak_js_1" ).setAttribute( "value", ( new Date() ).getTime() ); Azure Policy for Kubernetes: Contraints and ConstraintTemplates, CA certs: no need to copy them from stage 1, /etc/passwd: contains users and groups such as nonroot, tzdata: in case you want to set the timezone other than UTC, Here's my webinar on Flux v2 on AKS for ESPCs Azure Week. Look Docker, No Distro. It's much simpler and more oriented towards POSIX compatibility than performance. Why? You can look at strlen in the K&R book and it's beautiful, like a textbook: GLIBC is full of stuff like that. Which is quite a bit. Nah, not worth it. I heard about this "oh, it's shared, don't worry" thing before. Could you elaborate on what some the "wide variety of software" is? Please identify your camp and explain why. Find out what else Avenga is doing here and also check out our LinkedIn profile. int strlen(char s) Alpine meant for instance, that Python containers had to download all the dependencies and as a consequence they have become bigger with the Alpine base image than without it (sic!). : https://github.com/bminor/glibc/blob/master/sysdeps/x86_64/s For me it's mostly a non-issue. qsort and memcpy are non-obvious to many folks. Our experts working for the complex solutions in pharma, insurance, banking and industrial sectors share their views. Not to mention, you still need runtimes if you are programming in Java, Python or many other languages. Its the new 3x SQLServer + 2x IIS + 2x SharePoint cluster to serve an intranet for 100 staff when a single
However, this is just the start. Much like a classic car enthusiast, who knows exactly whats in his car, we will build our Docker images knowing exactly what goes into them. For almost any serious job running in production, you might need CA certificates and openssl. Good and simple explanations. The downside of plumbing directly to the container is that you lose many of the routing features of a service mesh. https://gist.github.com/blopker/9fff37e67f14143d2757f9f2172c https://sourceware.org/git/?p=glibc.git;a=blob;f=string/strl https://github.com/bminor/glibc/blob/master/sysdeps/x86_64/s https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=14543536. For statically linked binaries, why wouldn't you use the SCRATCH (0 kb) 'image'? It's not quite as easy to get started as with something like Ubuntu though. As you can see, all three share the image ID of b09f7387a719. the Parallel So when I talk about openssl in the image, I was referring to the `base` flavor. Binaries are binaries, whether you copied from a deb package or completely built from source code (assuming reproducible build, which Debian supports), they are the same. Youll be able to see some examples below of multi-stage builds, as we analyze the Dockerfiles of the different repos linked above. Is distroless the true and final savior? That said, the distroless trend is absolutely the right direction. On recent projects weve moved to using multistage builds and minified containers; mostly Alpine based but also distorless. By the time you're going to the trouble of reinventing buildpacks why not just use buildpacks? Distroless takes the upper-hand when it comes to having no package manager or shell. It's not just a few megabytes, it's more like hundreds. * musl prioritizes thread safety and static linking over performance Although, in my experience, you can go very far within your vpc. If your binary is static, why do you need a container at all? However multi-stage builds allow us to optimize and reduce the size of our images by selectively copying over artifacts from one base image to another. Distroless images are here. This has to be addressed, otherwise, without proper maintenance and base dependencies updates, it will rust very quickly and defeat the purpose of its creation. Tested 431 dependencies for known issues, found 349 issues. Remember your favorite cloud provider and its offer. The same goes for docker images, but the fight is for MBs rather than seconds. So we can have both, the temporary package manager in a temporary docker image and the flattened file system resulting in a smaller image. Add to that that modern Ubuntu uses systemd which greatly exhausts the systems inotify limits, so running 3-4 Ubuntu-containers can easily kill a systems ability to use inotify at all, across containers and the host system. There is not even a shell to docker exec into, however rule #1 of Docker security is, never run your application as root. Alpine always leans to conservative options and intentionally removes mostly-unnecessary things. I don't quite get it. This article describes one of the latest trends in the container world - its called distroless containers. I all comes down to what you need exactly or how explicit you want to be. Exactly. Images built from dockerfiles can do this too, but it requires some degree of centralisation and control. We copy the newly created dist folder to a new distroless image and run the app. It contains a minimal Linux, glibc-based system with: Once again, static images are the simplest distroless images. Felix Hassert, Avenga, Director of Products & Hosting. Your tech debt may grow slower that way. e.g. Lets compare some of the Dockerfiles we used to get the results seen above. Buster is the code name for the latest stable Debian version, 10.9. Why do they have to actively exploit hardware/vms that they own? For general cases, the former is preferable. This makes it especially easy to use distroless containers. The risk however is that automated dependency findings may fail and result in a runtime container unable to run your application. Unless you're behind a load balancer which terminates TLS and the traffic you deal with is purely http. https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/new-tls-termination-for-net >Today we are simplifying the process of building secure web applications by giving you the ability to make use of TLS (Transport Layer Security) connections that terminate at a Network Load Balancer (you can think of TLS as providing the S in HTTPS). However, even for the Go software it can be tricky to run in a scratch container. #10- The Best Online Platforms to Learn Something New, Today! stunnel/unbound DNS. Another approach is to use a standard base image (not minimized) and then use automatic tools to detect dependencies and remove files that are not needed. Next, node-prune comes in and helps us reduce our size even more. So in my opinon the name correctly suggests that it's "just the package" and comes "without a distro", and not "was built without the help of a distribution". So you can justify using k8s and shine up your resume! I do agree that people prematurely optimise and mainly incorrectly consider disk space but I think there's a decent use case for tiny images. https://github.com/clearlinux/dockerfiles/tree/master/python. Causing all kind of fun issues, I assure you. Depends. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. There are no hidden dependencies. If our goal is to reduce the image size why are we trying to find smaller and smaller distros? or you can debug from the host system where the container's pid namespace is a descendant of the root namespace and the other namespaces can be accessed via /proc or unshare. I remember the days when deploying .war to a Java Web Application Server was a several minute task where now micro-frameworks fight for sub-second startup time. Pulling a Docker image by specifying a tag version golang:1.16 or by pulling the latest version golang will produce the same result as golang:1.16-buster. I would also add that data transfers cost money, and having to transfer a few hundred MBs each time a container image is passed around can reflect in the expenses. We copy the requirements.txt, and install them along with upgrading pip. ++i Because I like the pattern of building the binary in a container, I prefer a multi-stage build . Similar to the Node distroless image, the Python distroless image, gcr.io/distroless/python3:nonroot, is built off of the base image but with Python 3 and its dependencies. Worst case for more disk use, things start crashing. Now that supposedly shared image is half a gig. #13- Apple CarPlay Not Working? #12- What is One Hot Encoding? So the cost is not just about disk-space. 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Why would anyone run an init system inside a container? It's faster in terms of development time. There is hope for shrinking images sizes for programs that are not written in compiled languages. I have always been a bit surprised at the popularity of Alpine Linux for docker images. Checked it out, is Intel supported with compiler tweaks to get the most out of their CPUs, for libs like math, pandas, etc. Unless you specifically need this image, in most cases it is not necessary. Normally I would do with golang apps. Do you get all developers to agree on which base image to build all their services from? Alpine with glibc? node-prune is a small tool to prune unnecessary files from ./node_modules, such as markdown, typescript source files, and so on. Don't feel bad. Without files, there is no hassle with file permissions. The `FROM SCRATCH` directive is not only distroless, its literally empty. Lets imagine you want to pay only for a low spec machine with just 1 GB of RAM. The CA certs are already in the image and /etc/passwd contains a nonroot user and group. Although these vulnerabilities are not ideal, using a distroless image over an Alpine image offers some advantages. Multiple containers sharing the same parent layers will not require additional storage for the core OS layer. As far as I'm aware you'd have to load that 80mb into memory for each docker container you run so that can add up if you want to run a bunch of containers on a cheap host with 1GB of RAM. See e.g. A step up from the static image, with more added packages, is the base image. "Don't worry, it's shared anyway". Computing Jacek Chmiel is an experienced system architect, tech leader, tech researcher. > all developers to agree on which base image to build all their services from. I think GP is probably thinking of kerberos/NSS, which has a plugin system that requires dynamic linking. For anyone who want a small image but with glibc. Already we can run and orchestrate 2.85 times more containers, using the same disk space. Disclosure: I worked on Cloud Native Buildpacks for a little while. given that containers usually do not include any init system at all thats not a good reason to pick a side. AWS is kind of a black box to me but it seems hopeless to try to protect data from people that physically control the systems. Rather than worrying about potential disk space issues upfront just use glibc and everything works fast and fine. Then we copy everything to a new buster base image and run the app. Multiplied by a thousand containers, and much larger layers on build servers, plus bandwidth, it makes a difference. It's not complexity for no reason, you'd be challenged to build a better qsort than the one in glibc, it's not easy. But theres statistics and practice. Thanks. Instead, we will focus on reducing base image sizes with distroless images, removing unneeded dependencies, and multi-stage builds. Bigger .dockerignore, Smaller Docker Images2. Alpine musl libc and busybox lack GNU glibc support and lack of GNU glibc support means trouble. A better signal to noise for container security scanners is one of the important reasons for distroless containers, also less files to scan and less I/O and CPU consumption for scanning as well. The base distroless image, gcr.io/distroless/base, contains everything from the static image plus: Base images are best used for Go apps that required libc/cgo and all other statically-compiled applications that the static image cant serve. Or maybe you dont use libc at all in your fast path? Depends on your workload, of course. I don't think your LXC experience applies to Docker. I wonder if this would be important with service mesh and mutual tls Service meshes make in-cluster mTLS a more-or-less automatic feature, which is worth having.