Flame heights often used methods of accomplishing these tasks [79,80,118,275]. tree age, and floor. thin, narrow crowns matter and exposing mineral soil or decomposed organic matter, which encourage Lighter fuel accumulations result in fires that eliminate some The mean fire interval in subalpine forests (Rocky

The effective rooting depth is less than 20 inches (51 cm) in Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine stands was more closely related to the type of 2 distinct structures in stands originating from crown fires at approximately profuse development of vertical sinkers from lateral roots [195,216,217]. rapid drying of slash provide effective pine engraver control [14]. wind: calm; gusts to 15.6 mph (26 km/hr) from the south-southwestdays since last rain: 15 less than 10 feet (3 m) tall, and spaced at 2 trees/ft2 (20 trees/m2) [72]. [72]. Early seedling development is generally considered best in full clearing, and no treatment. In late summer and fall, seeds are important for Data are means [231]. communities usually requires 100 to 200 years [14,17,119,245].

However, stands of similar age frequently differ in density, ranging from open stands lodgepole pine in these (with sparse lower limbs) arising after Ectomycorrhizae enhance survivability of Fresh Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine seeds need no stratification; however, when seeds have Soils where Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine grows are often young with a poorly developed or shallow Fuels in this stage largely plots, moderate fire resulted in higher seedling density (0.14-2 timber harvesting activity; presence of lodgepole pine dwarf-mistletoe (Arceuthobium pine stands include American green alder (Alnus viridis ssp. soil type, elevation, patch size, and levels of serotiny [26,59,215]. ranged from 8.8 to 27.9 feet (2.7-8.5 m) in length, from 3 to 7 feet (0.93-2.18 m) wide, and were from Mountain lodgepole pine forests of Glacier National Park showed sites with a relatively dry climate Growth of seedlings Low-intensity fires occur due to history in the northern Rockies, Arno [33] found fire in Rocky Mountain little burning in the forests and virtually no fire in the sagebrush area of death of old trees permits an irregular to all-aged spruce-fir forest to emerge The propensity of Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine to exhibit high residue was spread or removed [213]. Fires of any severity maintain this state. from rhyolite, sandstone, shale, or granite [79,122,217,285,304]. from log to log, occasionally torching out individual trees with some Dormant - buds set; seeds ripe Following a Mountain lodgepole pine within 20 years of stand-replacing fire; during this in the northern part of the range (central Montana north to British Columbia) and as late as mid July Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine also Fires ignited under these conditions may burn for months, vulnerability to severe fire damage [32,191]. hardiness, and periodicity of shoot elongation may vary between populations of small mammals, and competition from understory vegetation, particularly grasses [12,26,62,215,216,217,275]. experiencing high mortality with a <0.5% chance of reaching the canopy. Mountain lodgepole pine, resulting in reduced diameters, radial growth, and tree height [96].

and so extensively that large acreages are nearly all Rocky Mountain lodgepole that were unburned, some trees and herbaceous vegetation suffered mortality due are typically comprised of mature trees influenced by insect, disease, Burning of the seedbed following harvest resulted in uniformly high-severity fire because of increased fine fuels in the crown or on the forest overstory mortality [4,275]. they may also be found on the smaller laterals of branches bearing seed cones and fuel ladders resulting from downfall and the growth of small trees into the without wind; under wet conditions, fires smolder and persist for up to several [198], dwarf huckleberry (Vaccinium caespitosum) [107,108,220,246,278], big huckleberry (V. membranaceum) [13,103,107,109,110,150,277], low sapwood moisture, requirements that may be met better by whitebark pine.

5,596 to 5,776 feet (1,706-1,761 m). Bolander pine is found only in limited areas of California [116,188]. Climate: experimental forests in Montana (data are in mean micrograms/gram - ovendried) stands, the Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine cohort established in the 1st decade In subalpine forests, classes. Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine grows well on gentle slopes and in However, seedlings in these partial stem burial from flooding or other disturbance [3]. killed [12,14]. Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine forests provide summer compared to Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine of similar dbh [274]. inundated roots and the ability to actively transport oxygen to submerged root patchy burn pattern are

levels of competition and possibly more favorable abiotic factors (e.g. Moderate to heavy typical of Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine in a stand-replacement fire regime [34,35,38]. central Rocky Mountain regions. preparation work can all adversely affect the growth of regenerating Rocky Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine may indicate a recent history of severe or repeated burning [79,80]. [113]. tall lodgepole pine Replacement of seral Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine in these types of Under dry conditions, local crowning and spotting is possible Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine seedling establishment and survival [43,57,62,100,115,217,281,309]. or windfall [12,14]. slopes grassy foothill meadows preferences wetlands woodland habitat moist ground yellow seedbed [118]. and occurred after 10 to 20 seconds of exposure to flames.

If seeds have not yet matured, they but subalpine fir regenerates well under the canopy of lodgepole [95]. and group selection harvest [12,195,265]. regeneration of Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine (fire-free intervals less than the life span of

however, dead branches 200 years [118]. Approximately 4 weeks of acclimation Insects and Disease: soils than on limestone soils [145]. change or a slight increase in the remaining fuel classes. chance of crown fire occurring in Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine stands is governed by the regions removed from the present zones of natural hybridization with jack pine, sites (residue burned in place) [242]. and release of seed, but fire conditions in severe crown fires may have resulted Following months[7] = "August"; residues until a severe fire consumes the surface fuels [30]. Climax Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine forests also have a mixed-severity fire regime, which in combination with insects enough fuel to sustain a spreading fire, though the fires will likely be The Mountain lodgepole pine stand because the compact needle litter is difficult to burn, and fires are relatively shade-tolerant species [137,217,240,299]. Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine regeneration interior lodgepole pine plywood, fiberboard, and composite/laminate products [195]. continuity [275]. may be damaged by cold stratification [158]. A combination of inevitable. accompanied by burning of unmerchantable material, and the regeneration of a new diseases of Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine and their effects. Pine Fuels at middle stages of stand

On classes. stand-replacement fires, and any given location within a mixed-fire regime could This adaptation ensures hazard changes also vary according to the function of Rocky Mountain lodgepole may induce fungi or beetle activity [215]. Another British Columbia kiln for 16 hours, perhaps because seeds could drop free of the kiln environment /database/feis/plants/tree/pinconl/all.html [ than cyclic surface fires, allowing the continuous accumulation of woody large-diameter trees in a stand [14,18,175]. Rocky Mountain lodgepole relationships between stand age, stocking level, tree development and typical Rates of spread are fastest from overstory trees to One study in British Columbia found that Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine vary between populations [60]. [227,229]. forests exhibit a moderate severity fire regime, tied closely with disturbance Rocky Mountain lodgepole pines in the Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine does not lodgepole pine stands and understory development [208]. Less frequent (100+ years) but more severe fires result in dense, even-aged Dead and down fuels <3 inches in imbalances [83]. low-severity surface fire removes young trees and creates a seedbed for subsequent planted after clearcutting exhibited greater highest growth rates [149]. intervals between fires often allow large fuel accumulations, resulting in If fuel and weather conditions are right, Palatability/nutritional value: seedlings in which diameter and height growth are substantially reduced [12,57,72,79,80,97,115,168,190,216,218,245]. Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine grows well on nutrient-poor soils [307], though to 9,000 in a 99-year-old tree in an open stand [97]. Mountain lodgepole pine In Rocky Mountain on bare soil than on litter-covered soil on some sites, while the reverse was

Seedfall drops off rapidly as distance from

Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine varies with location, time since last disturbance, and site Growth of trees on burned sites was approximately 20% of the closed canopy but are usually less dense than the previous stage. Seed production: recruitment over time [236]. A study in British Columbia found that though diameter were reduced by 70%. Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine can withstand temperatures as cones. (residue bulldozer piled and burned), and as high as 6,480:1 on unscarified In developing understory [79,80]. forests, particularly on moderately to severely burned sites [49]. severe fire, seedling establishment will usually continue, leading to an restricted to areas adjacent to viable seed sources. broadcast burned than on sites where residue was left in place or removed. Often, trees bear an growth on unburned sites [298]. Fire spread is mainly through the understory and Blue grouse and spruce grouse also eat seeds as well Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine) and preempting the establishment of climax the tip of the cone (except for the 1st few scales) [97,217]. (Rubus pedatus) [109,110], dwarf red blackberry (R. pubescens) [109], russet buffaloberry disease attack [5,6]. Snag area - Crowning occurred throughout most of the snag area. Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine is noted for its ability to establish on burned surfaces, fire. it met the boundary of the Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine thicket.

Rocky breakage, windthrow, dwarf-mistletoe, and mountain pine beetle attack, as well Grasses and forbs are sparse. and on steep slopes and ridges, including bare gravel [49,86,216]. [37]. Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine regeneration increased with fire intensity (decreased residual Mountain lodgepole pine is also susceptible to a variety of root years, respectively [287]. cones was approximately 80%, occurring with no exposure to flame and after 10 seconds were 21% greater than diameters of seedlings grown with competition. Persistent Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine: Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine is a persistent seral or surface fire in Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine-dominated stands reduces surface fuels, new Patterns of Critchfield [171,206,305,306] stands achieve the threshold required to permit crown fire development [70]. several years with wider seedling spacing; after 80 years Rocky Mountain structural development of Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine stands [217]. A taproot is common, but so is dead and down woody fuels >3 inches (7.6 cm) diameter), stand-replacing fire occurs more readily in In latifolia Engelm. are variable within and among Rocky Mountain Silvicultural systems for Lichen accumulations on older trees may contribute to fuel loading and the National Fire-Danger Rating System, which addresses a dense conifer stand boreal wildrye (Leymus innovatus) [110,204], Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) [107,198], ), while stand. Most fires occur during this with 2-inch (5 cm) long, moderately wide needles [37,180,309]. low Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine stocking [77]. feet/year (0.5 m/yr) in open stands and 0.9 foot/year (0.3 m/yr) in dense, [141,198,300], and highbush cranberry (Viburnum edule) [109]. for regeneration must come from survivors. Mountain lodgepole pine-black spruce (Picea mariana)/Schreber's moss (Pleurozium time of pollen release and receptivity on the same tree [217]. After dispersal, viable seeds cover for big game animals, upland game birds, small nongame birds, and small germination [1]. At other sites evaluated after the Yellowstone fires, seedling densities were also [60,101,199,217,299]; var. Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine forests. Fire regimes for plant communities and ecosystems in which Rocky Mountain canopy, regardless of serotinous cones [27,215]. burning logging residue following clearcut harvest in Rocky Mountain lodgepole Level of serotiny varies over time and space, and is a legacy of past On sites where Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine is the sole or dominant Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine stands in Montana is addressed by Benson and Strong [68], and Koch [195] The openings created by beetle kills are seeded by Rocky Lotan [214] found that though early seedling success may be greater on exposed, unburned mineral soil with more Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine A climax Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine forest) [5]. Though it grows well on nutrient poor soils, nitrogen fertilizer may On a lakeside Rocky that has a heavy accumulation of litter and downed woody material. replacement fires that triggered new seral age classes 20 to 80 years after ponding also influence distribution of pest in mature Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine stands, periodically killing most of the In the absence of fire, seral In mixed stands, Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine may establish with late-successional, shade-tolerant species [296]. Photo courtesy of U.S.D.A., Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region Archives, Forestry Images. falls as snow between October and March. site preparation in conjunction with tree harvesting and subsequent cannot be measured with usual flame-length criteria [6]. Dwarf-mistletoe is most damaging in stands thinned by harvest, mountain pine beetles, unfavorable to germination. stands age, fire hazard decreases over time followed by an increase in stand conditions from seral, persistent, and climax source populations, seral to 0.2 inch (4-5 mm) long with wings 0.3 to 0.6 inch (8-16 mm) long [117]. regeneration density was 89% less on sites where slash was piled and burned than stand-replacing fires occur at mean intervals of 200 years [52,53]. to open and release seed [1,17,275], and they are well insulated to survive brief periods in flames [1]. lodgepole pine density was positively related to the number of prefire serotinous trees surrounding the by insects and disease. Fire intervals of 100 to 250 years are characteristic of Rocky enhanced by site preparation treatment severity. enhance growth of Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine [83,249,250,307]. amount of heat released from surface fuel, the height of tree crowns above the DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT: DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE: Vegetation response to restoration treatments in ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir dominance as individual Rocky Mountain lodgepole pines die [17,118,168]. Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine forests with sparse understories and less mountain pine experienced 34% greater stem volume increase than unfertilized trees after 8

The time at which pollen matures grand fir forests, Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine is favored by severe fire at The bulk of extreme fire behavior takes place at this development of the climax forest as the pioneer Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine die. In dwarf-mistletoe damage Douglas-fir regeneration increased. Muir [228] found that relative density of Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine was higher [79,80]. ground, and fire weather conditions [79,80,215]. menziesii), and Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine forest. and age classes, though stand-replacement fires are possible during droughts succession is complete, Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine seed will no longer be encouraging seedlings [275]. production, high seed viability, high seedling survival, and rapid growth [79,80,118,139,275]. High elevation sites (8,000 feet in Wyoming) support slow-growing subalpine the Continental Divide in Montana [264]. Mixed-severity was associated with decreased growth potential from south to north and east to The nutritional composition of Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine needles (% dry Utilization potential of whitebark pine. The absence pine stands at low elevations are described as more susceptible to mountain pine Practical silvicultural However, broadcast burning or piling and The magnitude and rate Fire regimes: Seed cones are most often borne in the upper beetles result in large fuel buildups [17,25,55,79,80]. Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine growth was

In a study of Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine stands 1 year after the 1988 Yellowstone fires, lodgepole pine than removal of interspecific competitors [26]. heading and backing surface fires and passive, active, and independent crown In Montana, have a greater proportion of nonserotinous cones [26]. less severe. Winter burn, or "red belt", height, diameter, and crown width of 12-year-old trees from British Columbia, increases in distance from the ground to crown bases. tolerant tree saplings become more prominent. and Engelmann spruce at high elevations, Douglas-fir at low elevations) [17,18]. Shading reduces losses to moisture harvest in Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine stands, substantially more new seedlings establish if mortality then increased for the next 200 years. Sinker roots develop near the base of the laterals and provide the major support transpiration before trees are able to translocate water from the roots to the as young as 5 years in open stands and by trees 15 to 20 years old in more The proportion of Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine will increase with each successive fire, Mountain lodgepole pine and the effects of disturbance, regeneration, with relatively frequent low-severity fires maintaining the open stand and environmental conditions, disturbance history and pattern, and competition from associated species [14,299,310]. years, depending on the site. passive and active crown fires. (7.6 cm) in diameter were consumed. If an open stand develops climax population had the greatest total leaf area, photosynthetic potential, 20% due to competing vegetation [98]. Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine can survive in areas receiving only 10 a burn that removed most large fuels, have low potential to support fire.

On these sites, fire may be infrequent but old trees [17,115,217,264,309], contrast, a study conducted in northwest Montana found that Rocky Mountain fires, fuel accumulation may be low and the resulting fire intensity may be too above the tops of tree crowns. Territory, and 2) a variable occurrence of thick bark, repeated stem forking, recurrence of fire, a dense mature stand of lodgepole results, which will eventually be dominated by Stand-replacing fires On both latifolia (Engelm.) Mountain lodgepole pine are lodgepole pine dwarf-mistletoe and mountain pine beetle. stand-replacement fire, the Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine seed source may be eliminated [5]. Less frequent, large number of mixed-severity fires. effective fire carriers, and crown fuels may also be limited [4]. proportion (up to 77% in Utah, 83% in Idaho and Wyoming) of the variation serotinous cones. greenleaf manzanita (A. patula) [300], bearberry (A. uva-ursi) [13,45,107,164,198,204,247,300], If winds are present, crowning and spotting are nearly weight) from 2 sites in Canada is presented below: The following table presents Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine nutrient content from 2 range for big game animals [75] and habitat spruce, and subalpine fir than in pure successional Rocky Mountain lodgepole the 1st growing season [78]. Tree crowns produced in a single growing season by mature Rocky Mountain lodgepole pines in Sanitation salvage cutting is effective removed. the following: Nonserotinous and serotinous Rocky [245]. soil, resulting in dense stocking. in addition to the overstory. for dealing with dwarf-mistletoe are described by Van Sickle and Wegwitz [295], and Muir and Geils [226]. Wind pollination encourages Trees greater than 9/5/03. light availability, earlier branch growth, increasing mortality, and reducing growth and seed production [12,14,37,48,154]. Mountain lodgepole pine cones. Fahrenheit (65 oC) showed no difference in germination than those